Virtual Museum
Chinese Art Everywhere
It is a collection of selected photographs taken by students of GE1106 (Chinese Art Appreciation), with the intention to show how Chinese Art is adopted and presented in the modern world.
Project

2016-2017-a

This image creates a feeling of escape, and of looking out onto a new world. From the position the photo is taken, the observer is looking into the distance as if he is searching for something. It is a landscape image, much like those painted during the song dynasty. The mountain in the background signifies the immeasurable distance of nature for human kind. The image also encapsulates one of the main features of Northern Song landscape painting, mountains and water. For me this image reminds me of the work of Fan Kuan, as it resonates the monumental landscape, which relied on suggestion, not description and which focused on scale and distance to create the fantastical feeling of nature.

This image links culture and art together. It is an inflatable of a Chinese man that characterises the celebration of the famous Mid-Autumn festival through vibrant colours and lights. This festival is a very important date in the cultural calendar for Hong Kong, and there is a whole night of vibrancy and colour to celebrate. I choose this picture in particular, as it reminds me of the culture of paper cutting presented by one of the groups this term.

This photo accentuates the significance of patterns and colours in religious ceremony and infrastructure. The vibrant green of the tree contrasts the vivid and piercing red of the walls. The various patterns covering the outside of the temple are extensive and highly detailed. This is closely connected to the importance of ritual in Buddhism, suggesting the strong connection between art and religion.

I wanted to choose an image that contained a figure, in order to link this back to the Court Lady paintings in traditional Chinese art. This photo depicts a young girl participating in a religious ceremony, with her bright red garments signifying status. This links back to the court ladies, as those of higher status were always more elaborately dressed with more colour, making them the focus point of the image. In this image, the young girl is without a doubt the focus as the viewer is drawn to the centre of the picture.

This photograph resents modernity, industry and wealth. The bright city lights and the colourful skyline, links to the use of light and dark in images to highlight different focus points. It resembles a much more western style of Chinese art due to the variety of colours and tones within the image.

This photo is taken in a tea shop which located in Wan Chai. It is a blue and white tea set. Blue and white is one of the famous Chinese art works. The white background can make the blue coloured decoration more vivid. Hence, Jingdezhen is the porcelain capital of China. The wonderful masterpieces produced in Jingdezhen also create a brilliant history of it. At the period, porcelain help motivate the trading between China and European countries.

This is a Chinese painting drawn by my best friend who studies Visual Studies in university. She drew it in a Chinese painting class and kept the artwork till now. I discovered the painting when I went to her house and found it fascinating and vivid. The painting is called ‘bamboo and bird’ (竹鳥圖). The bamboo on the right hand side shows a significant use of brushwork technique to show the vividness of it. The ink is used with different layers and thickness to deliver various expression. The strokes of the bamboo leaves are very thick and concentrated in order to show the darkness. Meanwhile, the stem of the bamboo is shown with 3 dimension as the shadow of the darker parts is represented by heavier stoke. Also, the closeness or the distance of the bamboos are clearly shown on the painting. The closest bamboo has clearer and sharper light contrast while the farther one is shown a bit more hazy and unclear, probably covered by some mist. The bird shows an apparent contrast with the bamboos in terms of color. The bird is in black and yellowish orange color while the bamboo is in dark green color. The bird is obviously drawn using the brush tip to give delicate and fine lines. The sophisticated use of brush tip gives clear shape of the bird’s feather, face and its paws. The different use of brush gives a clear contrast of the movement of bird and the static state of the bamboo. The artwork is drawn on a round shaped paper, which is actually used for a screen fan. In general, this artwork surprised me a lot for my friend’s experienced use of brushwork.

In Chinese philosophy, there are four fundamental emotions: delight, anger, sorrow and happiness. This small ornament was bought in Sichuan when I was in a trip with my family. The decoration was bought at a street stall together with the 3rd art item nearby a temple, which attracted me a lot. The four emotions are directed from the center of the same head, facing four directions. From left to right, the emotions on the face is the same order as the quote of Chinese words “喜怒哀樂”. The emotions on the four faces are easy to distinguish from one another with sophisticated carving on the facial features. The four faces look very real and vivid. In fact, emotions do not limited to these four kinds but seven in extension. I chose this decoration because of its meaning behind the four faces. There are good and bad emotions. According to Zhu Xi, who is a Song dynasty Confucian scholar, ‘the scope of ‘emotion’ is not limited to the good conscious thoughts of the four beginnings; rather, it should also include the various bad conscious thoughts that take the seven emotions as their external form.’ In this way, emotions include various forms of concrete thought. However, in this decoration, the four faces originated from the same source of the head. This implies that the even though lots of expressions we have, they are all from the same mind and can stay in harmony

This photo reminds me a tutorial topic presented by my fellow classmates – Chinese Traditional Paper Cuttings, which is usually symmetrical like this one. The idea behind is that symmetry is a symbol of the ideal and hope. Characters such as “Fu (福, blessing)”, “Xi (囍, double happiness)” (as shown in this photo) and “Shou (壽, longevity)” are the common subject in paper cutting. Rather than resembling either three categories of paper cutting, this is infused with both Chinese and Western elements: coins and hearts, and may therefore represents wishes for wealth and affection in a marriage.

This packaging makes use of traditional Chinese brush painting techniques to mainly emphasize the inner characteristics of the subject – panda. It does not contain many colors, instead it stresses light and shadow simply with more lines. There are a lot of spaces in the packaging too, in the sense to give prominence to the main subject. Surprisingly, inscription and red seal are found like other typical Chinese brush painting, making it goes beyond as a packaging but a painting.

This painting is a piece by a modern Chinese painter. It clearly shows how Western techniques are incorporated in a Chinese painting, especially the use of color. Light and shadow are presented with different levels of green: dark green, light green and even white. I can see the light is coming from the top right hand corner. Black lines were used to outline the shape of the bamboo but not the leaves for unknown reason. The only color other than the green is the red insects on the top left corner, creating an interesting contrast.

I found this pattern on a lantern in front of a Chinese restaurant. In China, the fish is symbolic of unity and fidelity as it is noted that fish (particularly koi) often swim together in pairs. In the ancient China, this pattern of lantern must appear in wedding. Fish are often given as wedding gifts in the form of charms or figurines to present the newly-wed couple with an auspicious sign of fidelity and perfect union. The also represent fertility and abundance due to their ability to reproduce in speed and volume. However, we will not use kind of this symbol nowadays due to the western culture are more popular in Hong Kong society.

This is a Chinese painting of my friend. We had studied Chinese painting in secondary school. The goal of ink and wash painting is not simply to reproduce the appearance of the subject, but to capture its essence and to express the spirit of the painter. To paint a flower, there is no need to perfectly match its petals and colors, but it is essential to convey its liveliness and fragrance. The marvel of a good painting lies somewhere between likeness and unlikeness. In this sense, Chinese ink wash painting may be regarded as a form of expressionistic art that captures the unseen.

This is a photo of the goldfish in my home. Goldfish is one of the common subject matter in Chinese ink painting, but also in the pattern on the pottery and ceramics. The Pattern on the pottery or China are usually seamless, which is continuous no pattern with angle we look at it. In this photo, we can actually copy it many time side by side to create a endless and continuous seamless pattern. Also, the patterns are usually unique and complicated, not just a simple line and shape but is the pattern that can’t be copy easily, so all the pattern should have slightly difference than the others. For the western style of pattern on pottery, usually they are one set of pattern repeating all over the surface, but for the Chinese style, it is usually have a degree of variation, like the size of the pattern and the form of the pattern might be changed. In this photo that contain one element that never appear in the Chinese painting, which is straight line. And the aquarium provided the straight line at left and right side. Also, this photo also provide blanked area to the audience, just like the traditional Chinese painting style which leave more white area space.

This is photo of a tree in winter. It is another example of leaving large space blanked for viewer to imagine the environment or even the weather. It is not a usual composition or form when we take photo of a plant. Usually, in western painting, every parts of the subject matters are included inside the frame. Like the portrait and still life painting, usually the subject is placed in the middle of the frame to show the every details of it. However, in Chinese painting, especially for the tree painting, only parts of the tree like branches is included in the painting. It provide a special angle to demonstrate the detail observation of the subject matter, like which angle does the subject look the best. But this photo is quite different with the blanked space that in most in the Chinese painting, because its blanked area is grey colour. And grey colour just like the used paint with a thin layer of ink in Chinese painting, and make it more moody.

This photo is a window of Tin Hau Temple at Sai Kung. After studying this course, it definitely helps me to understand the symbols appearing in this window. Combining the patterns of dragon and phoenix, and the pattern of cloud show the meaning of auspiciousness. And the pattern of crane conveys wishes for long life. In addition, the claw of dragon has four fingers, and when it has five fingers, the dragon represents a higher status and more power.

This photo is about lion dancing. Actually, I do not know how to perform the lion dancing but my best friend does. So we worked together to share something about lion dancing during a meeting at church. However, what lion dancing attracts me is its appearance. After studying this course, I found that it somehow looks like Taotie which has a symmetrical pattern and big eyes. And they also have the same function that is to ward off evil spirits or bad luck.

This photo was taken outside Hong Kong University Robert Black College. The rooftop of this building has a very significant Chinese architectural features, the upturned "artichoke leaf". In tradition, it is a very functional construction for buildings that are supported by columns but not walls. This kind of architecture allows rain water to fall in a same direction, to the outside of the building instead of accumulating in the rooftop. Besides, it also allows air to come inside the building. This kind of Chinese traditional architecture wisdom is still used in modern architecture.It is interesting to notice that the "artichoke leaf" upward curves of the roof has a special ideology behind that it is used for repelling demons and spirits. The fences also have significant Chinese style that the design are hollow-out and symmetric. The patterns are originally found in Chinese paper-cut. The patterns from paper-cut have used in many aspects, the fences is one of it. The columns of the building are in red colour, which is Chinese typical colour used in building. All of these design are full of traditional Chinese styles that they all have their own ideology behind. Patterns in fences and colour from columns represents happiness and power. The building design actually combines both Chinese and Western elements.

Chinese paper-cut also developed into other products other than just window decorations. In this photo, the guy is using a Chinese paper-cut bookmark. The colour of the bookmark is a traditional colour of paper-cut, red. Mostly, the paper-cut we see is in red colour because our ancestors think that red represents joy and happiness. The character in the paper-cut bookmark is ‘Qilin’, which is a Chinese mythical creature. Just like Chinese dragon, Qilin is composed of several animals. Qilin actually appears in variety of Chinese works, like painting and clothes, which symbolise peaceful and gentle. On the other hand, the paper-cut bookmark is made by machine obviously because the size is small that the contents are very complicated and detailed. On the other hand, the material of the paper-cut bookmark is plastic that cannot be cut by manual method. It is water-proof and more durable. I think the traditional paper-cut work cannot be used as bookmark as the materials used are fragile and easily broken. The traditional ideology behind paper-cut is to deliver happiness and joy. But, for the paper-cut bookmark. I don't think it can deliver the traditional ideology, but I am sure it represents a Chinese culture and Chinese folk art culture.

It is a cloth where in a shop of Festival Walk. The style of this cloth is a combination of Chinese and Western style. The Chinese style is that the pattern is flower, which has a symmetrical pattern and similar to paper-cut pattern. For Western style, the colour of it is shape. Also, the cloth has many small holes between different flowers' patterns, which cannot be seen in Chinese clothing.

I encountered this artwork in an exhibition in CityU. It is titled as ‘Calligraphy Fan’, by a alumni of CityU called NG Man Yi. It reminded me of several significant characteristics of Chinese Art: (1) Format of Chinese Painting One special characteristic of Chinese painting, as opposed to western painting, is that it can be painted on a folding fan. This is so ‘Chinese’ as Western painting would only be rectangular. (2) Theme of Chinese Painting As observed in this art, only in Chinese painting will we see integration of poem, calligraphy, painting, and seal. It is different from the western view that adding extra things will disturb the aesthetic of painting. Here we can see that the poem and the painting correspond with each other and create a stronger expression of the message. It is the ‘three perfection’ or ‘Three incomparables’. (3) Content of Chinese Painting Bamboo is commonly drawn in Chinese painting, it resembles the right strokes of the Chinese character ‘永’. Here, bamboo is an important component of the drawing.

This is a calligraphy artwork found in CityU School of Law. It reminds me of what we learnt in class about the style and meaning of Chinese Calligraphy. Calligraphy is the art of producing beautiful handwriting. This artwork demonstrates Cursive Script (草書). We can appreciate a piece of calligraphy artwork from different aspects. (1) Approaching: Overall, I think the composition of the handwriting is pleasing. (2) Observing: When I look closer at the artwork, the brushwork is freehanded. (3) Composition, Rhythm and Balance: The wild cursive script has a less structured composition, and pays less attention to balance. However, the rhythm is strong.

This is a calligraphy artwork found in an exhibition in CityU. It is in ‘Regular Script’. The content is Huangdi Yinfujing《黄帝陰符經》, a Daoism scripture. I especially like this calligraphy work as I find it pleasing. The script is neat and the strokes are slender, giving an elegant and calm feeling. The composition is also interesting as the 4 words「松林鶴夢」 are written in the middle. These 4 words are not a part of the poem. Perhaps the calligrapher feels that this four words correspond with the theme of the scripture. Thus, I am curious why the four words are inserted in the middle.

These are chairs found in School of Law in CityU. They are the remarkable blue and white porcelain. It is an underglazed painting. I think that it is very pretty and looks very ‘Chinese’. We can see that there are coins pattern on the chair, which symbolizes the Chinese value on prosperity. There are also dragons, a classic pattern found in Chinese Art, which represents power, strength and good luck. There is also landscape pattern in the pottery as shown by the Chinese pavilion.

This photo is a piece of painting taken inside the CityU School of Law. It is closely related to our course because I think this work is a modern multi-coloured shuimo painting. In shuimo paintings, the freehand style is very important. In Chinese, it is called xie yi. The painter would like to play with the concentration of ink and water as well as the brush stroke to create shuimo painting artwork. Here from the photo, even the leaves have different levels of green. We can see that the painter used more water to draw the lighter green and more concentration of ink to draw the darker green. In the photo, the painter depicted several peonies. It is important to note that peony is the city’s flower of Luoyang. In fact the painter painted peony for special meaning, since this piece of work is painted by Luoyang People’s Procuratorate. As mentioned by Dr. Lisa Chui in the lecture, one of the functions of Chinese art is to farewell. This piece of work, as showed by the inscription on the work, is a farewell gift given by the Luoyang People’s Procuratorate to the School of Law. It also shows the Chinese’s spirit in valuing friendship. Chinese pay significance on feeling, they like drawing a particular object to express some of their particular feelings.

This photo is taken from Hang Hau Man Kuk Lane Park, a modern Chinese garden. This photo reminds me the week 6 Lecture, Art and Nature as well as a group presentation which topic is Chinese garden. From the photo,you can see this garden is a man-made natural scenic place that concentrates fish pond, rockery, flowers, trees, pavilion into one. This is the world in a teapot

This seal is belongs to my mother. This is special that the name is from my mother in seal script. This is seal engraving. Nowadays, only a few seal carvers can design beautiful seal and carve them skillfully in hand. The top of the seal is also magnificent. On the top of the seal, it shows a bird and a dragon playing with a ball. In the ancient China, Bird and Dragon are Siling, animals of four quarters. They represent four cardinal point, our animal god in the ancient china. The animal gods indicate bringing great fortune to the owners and the later generation.

The photo of western painting is taken at the entrance of the City University of Hong Kong. This picture is called Wanhu Propelled to Heaven, which is drawn by Yuen Yunsheng in 2005. This picture illustrate a person from Ming Dynasty dreamed to fly with rockets, risked his entire life. With this concept, the man in the picture is flying in the sky to chase his dream. This meaningful artwork always us to keep our spirit and dreams, give us positive energy. This artwork is modern drawing. The appearance of the man is clear instead of just using few lines like those in ancient china. The figures in Chinese are not desire for similar in appearance but emphasis on the abstraction and symbolism. It is detailed about the folds and marks on his body and clothes. The color is also bright and sharp. There are clear contrast between the background and the clothes which emphasize the man and become the focus point of the whole art pieces.

Photo of bamboos is taken in the library in the City University of Hong Kong. This frosted glass is located in the studying area in the library. On the frosted glass, there are several bamboos with ink. In China, bamboo always symbolizes indomitable. This can encourage students to work hard indirectly. Thi is creative to put ink landscape drawings on the wall. It uses frosted glass as the paper of the artwork, which is obscure. It uses dry brush technique with thick lines draw out trunk. The ink is not distributed evenly. They give students peaceful, which attract many of us studying there feeling studying in the ancient time.

This photo was taken in an exhibition in City University. The calligrapher called Ouyang Denian(歐陽德念), the student from School of Media. The content is well-known sayings from The Yueyang Tower(岳陽樓記) written by Ouyang Xiu(歐陽修). To appreciate a Chinese calligraphy, first thing to be concerned is approaching. The calligrapher wrote in running script, which is more free-flowing than regular script but precise than cursive script. It seems flexible but still easy to read. We can find that the same character can look different. Just like the word 之. Moreover, the characters and lines are well balanced as they rest on their own axis. For example, all the words were written without slang and separated in evenly spaced, which give us a pleasant feeling during appreciating. So the calligrapher seems like a neat person but do not like restricting by a rule. Then, it is time to observe by closer examination. The content is about feeling sad or happy should not be affected by environment or personal gains or loss. All these emotions should be aroused for the whole world. It is correct but too idealistic as it is so harsh for normal people to attain. That may be the reason why the words were written in light color. For the dark one, which is about do not be so happy in good times while do not be too frustrated in adversity, is much more easy to attain. The calligrapher would like to emphasize this idea so put it in the middle with dark color. The calligrapher uses certain features to make his idea firm. We can see some connected stroke in 不 and 以. Writing in one stretch seems like an expression of attitude and gives a coherent feeling as well. Besides, the last strokes are always brushy like 不,先,物, and thick by like 天,憂. No matter written in brushy or thick can convey a feeling of confidence and certainty. All the words were written in non-uniform way, some with thick, thin or brushy stroke, in order to express the beauty and enhance the artistic value. Moreover, the difference in ink color makes this calligraphy more special as we can only see this feature in the painting.

This photo was taken in a shop in Causeway Bay. It called LA MONTAGAN, that is mountain in English. Its size is about 170 X 80 cm and cost $230,000. Actually, there is a significant difference between Chinese and Western painting. In Chinese paintings, painters usually use line, traditional brush stroke to portray. Also they would like to leave the background blank to represent daytime. For example, draw part of the mountain while the absent part implies that there is cloud around it. However, this oil painting is fully covered by paint. Blue sky and white cloud are drawn by paint. For the mountain ridges. Chinese paintings try to use dry brush to show the texture while Western use dark and light to show the three dimensions of mountain. Chinese paintings do not care about similar in appearance but the meaning of the drawings, which differ from Western. When Chinese painters draw landscape painting, they would like writing couplet to record their emotion or thoughts. But we never see this in Western paintings, just like this picture. Actually, it is not a plain painting. It combines the paper cutting technique as well. All the flowers are cut from paper and then paste in the picture. Obviously, it is a Western paper cutting. For the color, Western primarily uses multi-colored (Chinese use red paper more often as they likely to cut for blessing while red color represents luck due to the Five Elements Theory.). As they believe in science, this enforces them obey the law of chromatic and realism. So we can see there are different darkness of leaves. Also, white paper for the petals, green paper for the leaves, as these are what we see in daily life. For the performance, just similar to the previous reason, Western would concern the perspective. The big flowers symbolize near perception while the small flowers mean they are far away from the painter. But for Chinese paper cutting, painters would not consider the sense of space but emphasize the spirit of painting. This contemporary painting shows the transformation of paper cutting. We can see the cuttings combine with other material, that is paint, in order to create additional effect. This crossover can only be seen in contemporary art. I wonder the innovative ideas and meticulous handmade crafts contribute this expensively priced artwork. No matter in Chinese and Western paintings or paper cuttings, there are distinctive features for us to distinguish them. To conclude, Chinese much more focus on spirit while Western reflects the realism.

This photo, which took in City University of Hong Kong, is Kirin Statue. It is related to the "Colours & Patterns: Meaning of Chinese Art" lesson. Kirin, which is one of the Chinese traditional auspicious animal. The Kirin in photo is similar to Kirin Statue in Beijing Summer Palace and thus it maybe the imitation. In traditional China, people would use Pushou be the door knocker. They believe that Pushou have the power to ward off evil spirits. The function of Kirin Statue is similar to Pushou, which might bring luck to the family. This is because Kirin is the essential totem in China. Kirin represent peace and longevity. Chinese people frequently use because they believe Kirin can bring great future and good auspices to their owner. The Kirin Statue here display noble of school and protect the house to ward off evil.

This photo, which took in City University of Hong Kong,show the traditional Chinese garden. It is related to the "The Meanings and Functions in Chinese Lanscape Painting" lesson. The purpose of traditional Chinese garden is to bring the beauties of nature and artistic conception to visitor. This photo can see the whole view in a small form, there are several components, which are essential in nature, such as water, stones, plants and the like. In Chinese lanscape painting, the water usually use empty space to show, which is static state. In this photo, most of the water is static state. Moveover, the garden show the implicit beauty because composition of water is in middle and water can bring the tranquil, purify the mind and spirit.

This photo, which took in City University of Hong Kong, show the bamboo. It is related to the "Significance of Brushwork in Chinese Painting" lesson. Bamboois an important element in Chinese painting and calligraphy. In Chinese Character "Eternity", it has eight different strokes, which distinguished by Wong Xi-Zhi (303-361). Wong said that the strokes can be used to depict any objects. In general, the painting beginner would use the strokesto depict bamboo. The connection between the smooth strokes can show section of the bamboo, especially in seal script. This is because through the different force add into the cChinese brush, the thickness of the line can be controlled. This is also the definition of Temperament and interest of Brushwork.

This is a photo shot at an exhibition about “Along the River During the Qingming Festival”. The exhibition used modern computer animation techniques to make the painting “move”. This enables visitors to understand ancient people’s daily lives in Song Dynasty. The combination of science and traditional art is shown as another form of art. This becomes an interesting and more interactive form to let people understand the history and art.

This photo is an experience of being a Japanese geisha in Kyoto, there is different hair accessories for decoration, and one of them is a Buyao, which will be shaking step by step. As Chinese culture had affected also Japanese. The accessories are flower theme, which is for the fortune of beautiful nature. I learnt these from the group presentation about Chinese hair accessories.

This photo is in Kenrokuen in Kanazawa, Japan. It includes different garden arts, and Japanese are affected by Chinese culture. For a beautiful garden, there should have water, we can see the lake in my photo. There should have plants, and we can see many trees in my photo. There should be architecture, we can see the house at the back and the bridge I am standing on in the photo. I learnt this from the presentation about Chinese garden.

The red packet introduced by Credit Suisse in 2015 is a digital contemporary form of traditional Chinese painting. The design has integrated traditional elements of inscriptions in painting, “百花喚春花 靈羊生瑞氣”, and the depiction of nature and animals as subjects, which in fact represented the year of goat in Chinese New Year. The choice of red color in addition symbolize festive mood, fortune and affluence in Chinese traditions.

The Super Star Group has emerged Chinese calligraphy into the package design of their food product, Crispy Whitebait with Peanuts. Chinese traditional characters “脆脆銀魚” was printed in the form of running script with brushstrokes and black ink, showing a collaboration of modern design technology and traditional writing element in our contemporary life.

The d. 1.8cm jade coin pendant is decorated with gold ornamentations as a necklace. Not only were jade stones adopted for accessories in traditional Chinese culture, but bequeathed as a significant production in jewelry industry nowadays. It has recreated the accustomed coin-shaped design which is commonly seen and often symbolize good fortune in Chinese traditions.

Chinese Bird Equipment The designs of Chinese ceramics are never only limited to human necessities but expanded to other fields. Despite the function and sizes of the equipment, manufacturers still exhibit effort in illustrating details in varied art forms including colors and patterns with the use of green, white and blue glazes, which indicates the importance and high appreciation of the Chinese possessed towards Chinese ceramics.

Chinese Porcelain Tea Set While the Chinese possess high degree of aesthetic values towards the designs of ceramics and porcelains, utensils such as tea sets also became part of the collection. Mostly the utensils are filled with animal or symmetrical patterns for their strong association towards natural elements such as fish and dragon related to water.

This picture is Chinese traditional Sticky Rice dumplings. Each single dumplings put in a box which package with Chinese painting “Along the River During the Qing Ming Festival”. When we put all the box together, the whole picture will come out. I think the product design related to Chinese culture and is good for introduce this culture to foreigns.

This picture is an oil painting. The artist painted a woman portrait with large scale, which is different with traditional Chinese portrait. As the media used in traditional Chinese painting is ink and the object is small with large blank area. I think the artist applied the Western painting skills in it. First, the size of the woman almost fill the whole painting, which look like Western portrait having the subject in large scale. Chinese women are a bit shy with a little smile. Second, the brushstrokes are fine to create a smooth texture. Third, the background is in dark color. It is different from traditional Chinese painting, as Chinese painter rarely uses dark ink for background but keeping a blank background. Besides, this portrait is realistic, we can know the face of the Chinese woman, Also, the painting is detailed. The painter painted the folds of clothes and the patterns of the clothes, in order to let the painting become realistic. We can know the style of clothes and the look of Chinese women in the past.

This picture was captured in Lam Tsuen Wishing Tree, and wishing to the god through put the wishes on the tree is Chinese traditional worship activity. The red paper is called "joss", and it start appeared in the Song Dynasty, A.D.960. This joss paper is made from bamboo paper and it commonly used in many Chinese traditional activities, especially in sacrifice. Most of the ghost money, papier-mache offering are made by josses. In Lam Tsuen Wishing tree, the joss paper are red and shaped as a goat. Red in China symbolizes good luck and good fortune. Goat in China is seen as auspicious animal, it also is a component of the words “xiang” (祥) and “shan”(善). These two words both have the meaning of auspiciousness and kindness. Therefore, people shaped the joss paper in a goat for praying the paper can be saw by god.

My family member including myself are Buddhists, so that there are many Chinese Feng Shui items in my home. This little water pot is placed on my study table representing a clear mind and for a better performance in my study, by changing new clear water in it everyday. It was made by porcelain and paint in green. Green means balance, growth and fresh in the Chinese culture, as to represent an improvement in academic performance. In the middle of the pottery, there is a Chinese character “佛” means Buddha and at the bottom of the the water pot, there is a plate in a shape of Lotus Flower. In Buddhism, Lotus would not be stained with sludge from pond and it symbolizes the meaning of changing the trouble to clean and free from the crowd as well as being transcendental. Apart from that, there is a passage written in Chinese Calligraphy on the pottery which is “The Heart Sutra”, it is about we should have the wisdom and become a broad-minded person, so that we can go through the hardships. The style of the calligraphy is between running script and regular script which is not too scrawled nor as formal a regular script, it shows a natural font which is beautiful and easily be understood by the people nowadays.

I have the habit of collecting stamps since I am in the primary school, which is influenced by my mum. We love appreciating the designs and drawings on the stamps from different countries, such as the drawings of traditional Japanese dancers, Statue of Liberty in USA and Chinese traditional brushwork paintings, so that we can learn about their cultures and traditions. Among all of them, I like this set of stamps the most, which is “Children Stamps- Andersen’s Fairy Tales” produced by Hong Kong Post in 2005. The set of stamps contains 4 stamps that show the stories of “The Ugly Ducking”, “The Little Match Girl”, “The Little Mermaid” and “The Emperor’s New Clothes” in the design of Chinese traditional paper-cutting, which are printed in monochrome. The paper cuttings patterns were created by Lu Xue which are not symmetrical, which required more skills but not just simply cutting by a proportioned crease. Except the lines which show the shape of the figures, he left the shadow parts with papers without cutting as colouring and a better effect of higher perspective. The combinations of western children’s stories and Chinese traditional art are so harmonious, not only can promote the art value of paper cutting and reflect Hong Kong’s multiculturalism, but can also attract children to develop a good habit of philately through the fairy tales.

This mini cross body bag was brought in a market in Singapore during my summer vacation in 2016. Singapore is a Chinese country that Singaporeans would used Chinese characters in their daily life, their traditional culture is also influenced by Chinese elements. Because of this travel, I bought an item with a pattern that I was get used to and won’t buy in Hong Kong as a hand letter. I remember the patterns from different samples were slightly different, but I don’t think that it was handmade because it only cost around HKD100, which is not reasonable for an exquisite and time consuming handmade embroidery. Chinese embroidered works were the platform for ancient women to express themselves and show their graciousness thought the fabulous craftsmanship, which can be presented by works produced by machines. In this bag, there are various type of flowers such as the red peony in the middle, yellow Tanacetum Tatsienense surrounding and the little red flowers likes Begonia Grandis or Ipomoea Nil. Peony had the meaning of generous, wealth and luck, which is also the national flower of China, representing a high social status. Tanacetum Tatsienense has the meaning of warmth, clean and the truth, while the little red flowers are the symbol of the strong spirit of women. The art of embroidery on the women’s bag represent the appeal for individuality and a good prospect.

I have a quarter of Manju’s (滿族) race, so that I would wear cheongsam during Chinese New Year when I was small, which is Manchu’s traditional costume. In modern days, when we are being asked what is the traditional Chinese costume for women, most of us would think of cheongsam which has become a symbol of Chinese. The cheongsam I was wearing is made with silk and cotton in blue colour, which has the meaning of quiet and gentle. The cutting of Cheongsam is slim and well-fitting, the combinations of the colour and cutting show the body lines of women and present the gentle temperament and elegant of Chinese female. Also, it is suitable for people in all ages as well as social status by the differences in cutting and patterns, the elderly can choose to wear cheongsam which is wider and in darker colours to suit their image. On my cheongsam, there were golden flowers embroidered on it which demonstrated the charm and beauty of women at the same time and strengthening the visual effects. Originally, cheongsam was tight and long which was not convenient for moving, so that in the modern and open-mined society nowadays, many cheongsams were shortened to be more comfortable, just like what I was wearing in the photo.

This photo is a garden was located in Tenryū-ji. When I travelled to Japan, I took this photo in Kyoto. In one of the tutorials, the presentation group introduced the Chinese garden and talked about Japanese garden as well. Therefore, I chose this photo to examine Japanese garden. This garden including the temple is used to venerate and appreciate Gautama Buddha. Musō Soseki was the first chief priest of the temple. For Chinese garden, people artificially mimick the natural environment and built the garden in the home. Especially for those rich people, they will decorate their garden with plants, pots, or even pond and hill. The owner create the circumstance according to their asthetic value and emotion. All the elements will be arranged properly. The arrangement is important as it links with seasonal changes, the materials of the local area, the folk custom and social trend, and the owner’s personalities and characteristics. Unlike Chinese garden, Japanese garden is in the light of god and spirits, buddhism, or the relationship of zen between nature and humans. The garden is linked with a sophisticated philosophy. The design is simple and asymmetric with trimmed trees. There are stone, gravel ground and tōrō which is the traditional lantern made of stone to create a quiet atmosphere for meditation and muse. In the photo, the grasses were clipped tidily.

This photo shows a flower vase. This is a new vase my mother bought recently. I would like to choose this picture because the vase itself and the painting on it. Have you seen some vases like it in your daily life? In fact, I personally seldom see this kind of Chinese vase. In my memory, most of the vase are western style with colorless glass. I think it is quite different to see vases with Chinese paintings unless in the elderly’s home. Although it is a cheap vase, I think the maker had tried to make it looks like Chinese porcelain with two-color effects (doucai). For the painting on the vase, I guess it is a painting using birds and flowers as the theme. The main character of this painting should be the grus japonensis. We can see that there is a lot of branches and flowers at the two side of the grus japonensis as decoration. There is no much composition in the painting and the perspective of it is also a bit strange. Looking at the bottom part of the vase, we can see there are some light green pieces of things at the back and I guess them are mountains. It looks a bit weird due to the proportional size of the main objects and the background element. This style of painting is called Gongbi as the outline of the objects are nicely drawn to show the details of the painting and hence to create the realistic feeling. Although the coloring is a like western style, I like it a lot.

Chinese Garden in CityU (Picture was taken in the garden of CityU) The garden in CityU shows the elements of Chinese garden mentioned by classmates in class. It makes good use of plain and roof structure. It shows the peaceful feeling towards the people walking by. The position of the garden is at the back of the school, which contributes to a more silent mood as it is far away from the academic building. When people go there, it just like separated from the crowd and can calm down, which is the concept of Zen emphasized in Chinese garden.

A girl was looking at the landscape in Shing Mun Country Park. It is similar to ‘Lofty Mount Lu’ by Shen Zhou. A figure was standing beside the majestic Mount Lu and reflecting his own life. In this photo, although there was not the powerful waterfall in front of her, she was thinking deeply in a peaceful surrounding. Yet, the difference between the traditional painting and modern photos is the figure’s size. First, in traditional figure painting, the painter painted the figure bigger which means the class level and the importance of this figure is much higher than others. Second, people painted landscape because landscape represents the scenery of nature and they liked to look at those type of pictures. Base on the two fundamental knowledge, it shows the culture difference clearly and significantly. Since nowadays, most of the people, especially youngsters, like taking portrait photos to be the profile picture of various social media platforms. “I” was so important in the photo to show "my personality". As Mi Fu, scholar-amateur artists, wrote that landscape “...is a creation of the mind”. In traditional landscape painting, painters did not desire the appearance of mountain, rock, tree or etc. but “create” the out-looking and present the same internal meaning. Youngsters’ modern landscape photo has a little bit difference from her say. Teenagers “create” the circumstances instead of the reality of scenery of nature. Like this photo, the photographer creates the “alone”, “quiet” and “peaceful” atmosphere successfully. However, in fact, there was so many tourists around her and very noise at the nature area because all of them were asking others to take a wonderful photo, or say “create”. Like this photo is one of the examples of the “standard” of modern landscape painting that it shows the contemplation and “inner world” of the main figure in the photo. (306)

This is a normal landscape which was shot in Shing Mun Country Park. Inadvertently, the photographer shot a bright characteristic in this photo, which is the figure on the left-hand side. There are full of the green tree around him. It makes the audience think about reclusion. In traditional Chinese painting, landscapes always were depicted some particular person’s secluded dwelling, which expresses the idea of reclusion and retirement. When the politicians’ talents were unrecognized, most of them chose retirement and went back to nature. ‘Back to nature’ was a common goal and life ending of literatus, like Tao Yuanming. However, there is no house in the photos, so ‘retirement’ idea cannot fulfill the whole analysis. How about the structure? The structure of the photo is that the tree on the right-hand side closed-in and the figure on the left-hand side open outward. The size of the figure is very small because of the real distance from him to the photographer. Yet, since ‘back to nature’ is a luxury in Hong Kong nowadays. The distance between the audience and the retired man brings another message, which reflects the reality - there is still a long way to enjoy the nature. In addition, the photo is over-exposure the lake. The water becomes pure white which seems like the blank of drawing skills. This is a usual technique to paint the water, especially in fish painting. The blank is in the center of the photo while the surrounding is quite dark green. It attracts audience attention. Blank gives imagination spaces to the audience. Is there anything in the lake? What is the real color of the lake? All the answers are truth, which depends on different audiences only. This is the advantage of ‘blank skill’. It seems nothing, but it can be anything. Using over-exposure skill, the photo can create a way as to lead the spectator on a journey through the landscape. (319)

A traditional Chinese garden is a man-made natural scenic place that concentrates hills, rockery, fish ponds, flowers and trees into one, which we could call “The world in a teapot”.This photo was taken at an estate garden in Fanling. The buildings keep the red tile roof. There is a pond in the middle of the garden. Willows are planted around. The whole garden is full of traditional Chinese garden style. Connecting by the bridges, the pavilion with the red roof is in the middle of the pond. Sitting there, you may feel that the surrounding brings you peace and relaxation. Garden give rise to a philosophy of seeking peace and quiet. Chinese art is an embodiment of philosophical concepts and attitudes towards the natural world. Among man-made natural scene was a very important notion, which is the idea of ‘Communing nature’. In the photo, we can see the high estate buildings around the garden. Compared the past, since the density of resident is much higher than the traditional residential environment, the estate garden occupies a very important position nowadays. We need a nature place where we could escape from the reality, like a hermit. We were safe from the pressures of our study, work or position. Yet, it is not same as reclusion. Today, living in nature is nearly impossible to Hong Kong people. Most of the citizens live far away from “green”. Garden is a convenient man-made natural scenic place into our neighboring residence that we could refresh ourselves “immediately”. In fact, the size of the garden in this garden is very precious in Hong Kong. The density of population in Hong Kong is too high which is not enough space to live in a quality standard. Therefore, the “garden” in Hong Kong today is built a few tree and set a few chair in a small area only, which is much different from the traditional Chinese garden. (320)

This photo was taken in an indoor office, called Blue Print, in Quarry Bay. The design is western and modern. However, the catchiest characteristic is the blue bamboo. Since the name of the company is involved ‘blue’, so the color of the bamboos were painted in blue color. Bamboo is a very Chinese style signature. There are lots of famous bamboo paintings in the long history of China. The first lesson of learning traditional Chinese painting is drawing bamboo, and it may take you over one month to practice. It is because there are different forms of bamboo and various drawing skills. A thousand of combination could be shown the skeleton of bamboo. In this photo, those fake bamboos are different form and shape. They can “stand” straight because they are hanged from a hook in the ceiling. This idea is quite similar to a garden. People try to bring the nature next to ourselves because we cannot go to the countryside freely. The fake bamboo is like the man-made natural scenic garden in Hong Kong, even the traditional China. People planted some potting inside the house to keep the relaxation around themselves all day. Although nowadays in Hong Kong, the time of staying in an office is much more than the time of staying at our home, we still maintenance the belief from the traditional concept and try our best to bring nature to be near at hand. Using the fake bamboo to separate the working desks is the clever idea. About the function of separating, the fake bamboo not only separate employees from others but also separate pressure from others. We are working together but still have our own private space. If we feel tired, we lift up our head and talk a look at the bamboos. They make us feel better because the peace of nature comforts our exhaustion. (312)

This is a photo of my cousin’s wedding. She is wearing a Chinese traditional costume called “Xiu He dress(秀禾服)”, which was evolute from Ao Qun(襖裙). Ao Qun was born early in Ming dynasty, which is a kind of Han Fu(漢服). What’s more, my cousin decorate her hair with Chai(釵), Zhan(簪), Buyao(步搖)… all in a traditional style.

This photo took in Humble Administrator's Garden(拙政園). This photo obversely give viewer a feeling of narrowness, which is a characteristics of traditional private garden in north of china(江南) .It is quite important that the image combination of elements in the landscape scene should conform to the law of nature. So the lake in the photo is natural twists and turns, and the pavilions, terraces and open halls(亭台樓閣) were built ups and downs.

This photo was taken in Tin Hau MTR Station and it is related to the lecture about Chinese Calligraphy and Its Functions. I chose to take a photo there because it show a great match of Chinese traditional art- calligraphy and the modern society. Having Chinese calligraphy as decoration in mass transportation system is a special and idea in my point of view as it is not only decorative, but also practical in terms of telling passengers which station it is. Also,it provides a good chance for people, including the busy locals and tourists to know more about this traditional Chinese art. Taking a photo of the Chinese calligraphy in the MTR station is in fact the very first idea I have for this assignment and this shows that it is really effective in promoting Chinese art in Hong Kong society, as most Hong Kong people take MTR and come across these calligraphy every day. Interestingly, I spent some time doing research to choose which station I should choose to take the photo and found negative comments against the writing style these "MTR calligraphy" in the process. I found that the calligrapher does not have a very specific calligraphic style that sometimes the MTR station names are like written by different people. At last, I chose Tin Hau station for two reason (1)it's the best written station name in my eyes and (2) it was written in clerical script with clear stokes of "silk worm's head and swallow's tail蠶頭燕尾" and other characteristics of clerical script, unlike the others, which were written in running script.

This photo was taken on the platform of the other new MTR station, Whampoa Station. The theme of the mural in the photo is “History and Imagination- Whampoa”. Although it seems that the mural does not have much connection with Chinese art, there are some Chinese art elements hidden in it. Despite, many colours are used in the work, which is not very Chinese-like, the stokes used to draw the mountains and wave are from the Chinese approach. Simple lines are used to depict the mountain and the wave and the dimension, and front and back position are shown. The figure on the left are also drawn with simple lines to show details of his clothes and facial expression. Apart from from the use of lines, it is also worth noting that the one point perspective is not used to draw the background of the painting. The techniques used in this mural has displayed the elements of Chinese painting style. However, there are also Western painting elements in the art work. For example, the trees are drawn in the Western sketching approach, and the use of multiple colours are elects of Western paintings. Therefore, the point of special of this photo is that the Chinese and Western painting styles are shown in one mural/photo.

This photo was taken in The campus of Chinese University of Hong Kong, right outside the University library. The pattern on the ground is called cloud-and- thunder pattern 雲雷紋 and it is generally found on pottery in Shang Dynasty and bronze in the Neolithic period. It is very special to use this traditional Chinese pattern as decoration on the ground that it does not only fulfill a decoration purpose, but also create a sense of the traditional Chinese culture. Moreover, as the large sculpture “Gate” is located near the cloud-and-thunder pattern, the atmosphere and feeling of Chinese art and culture is even greater and the sculpture, the pattern on the ground and the library together have given that area a great sense of harmony and culture so I think the pattern shows a good demonstration of traditional Chinese art the modern environment.

Photo taken from Lippo Centre. In Chinese art, animals are always a main factor. Different animals represent different symbolic meaning. From this photo, we can see it is a pictograph. The artwork completed by putting different sizes of rocks together and fix them on the wall. A Chinese dragon with dark golden color is in the middle part of the pictograph, a hand is holding a ball with golden color, the body is surrounding a column. In addition, I see there is a sailboat directly below the Chinese dragon, I guess the column is the mast of the sailboat. It is possible that the background is the see. In Chinese art, dragon contains symbolic meaning of male vigor, strength and emperor and natural world. So, I think the meaning of this pictograph is our emperor/official is able to change the world.

Photo taken from Hong Kong Park. Waterfall is one of the water elements in Chinese garden. In this photo, we can see two waterfalls. Actually, it was the artificial waterfall. The water flows over a vertical drop in the course of lake. The waterfalls show the movement of the water, and it has a good appearance. Wave of the lake created by flowing of water. Around the waterfalls, we can also see the rocks and trees, they are also the elements of the Chinese garden. In this photo, the major color is green related to the nature, and the scene is a feast for our eyes. As the shape of the rocks are irregular, we can see the shadow of the rock. The grasses and trees create an animated atmosphere.

Photo taken from Hong Kong Visual Arts Centre. In this photo, we can see four pottery with the same idea which is cheongsam. And this is a modern creative artwork. In our lectures, we acquire the knowledge of women’s dressing excluding cheongsam. However, as cheongsam is also an important dressing in the period of Republic of China, I think it is in our scope. According to the pottery, we can see the body shape of the women. Silk is the materials of cheongsam. The texture of silk is smooth. Glazing of the pottery shows the feature of the cheongsam. From this photo, we can see cheongsam with a high-necked, closed-collar. And the decoration of cheongsam contains western characteristic because we seldom see the decoration of cheongsam with a triangle shape.

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Note of 20 Yuan picturing the region of the Yangshuo: I do not know who paints this but I know that every Chinese citizen knows this image. This is what we can see on the note of 20 Chinese Yuan. What stroke me when I saw it first is the gap between the big Chinese cities like Beijing or Shanghai (where I was) and this peaceful region called the Yangshuo. As I said I do not know who painted it and I do not know neither when it was painted but it is perfectly representative of the traditional Chinese Art: beautiful landscape, mountain in the clouds, river…

This is a picture I took in the Antique Market in Beijing. I found all those colors beautiful and it reminds me of my presentation in this class. Indeed, I did it about the five great kilns of the Song dynasty and some of those vases looked a lot like the Jun wares. The blue to purple glaze colors is one the characteristics of those wares. Moreover we can see « splashes » of purple on blue. I am not sure I could recognize real ones compared to fake one if I would see it but I guess I am now able to distinguish different families of ware.

Two shoudai birds among peach blossoms, hanging scoll, by Yu Xing, Qing dynasty. I first chose this picture because I really like the theme of classical Chinese art. I find it calming and gentle. It always has to deal with nature. Once again we can see flowers and birds. This theme “birds and flowers” was inspired by the paintings during the Song dynasty. However, it seems different because probably more colorful than what we could find in the previous dynasties. Those birds seem very sophisticated, maybe due to the encyclopedic spirit of the Qing dynasty in this time.

Lost City No. 1 by Vaan Ip 2009: I discovered this painting in the exposition “Breathing space” in the Asia Society Hong Kong center. I immediately loved it because I recognize the city of Hong Kong in a few seconds even though all we can see is black or grey little rectangles and stains of ink. We can perfectly distinguish the buildings, the traffic and the people in this painting even though they are abstract. What this image means to me is that we do not need to paint everything as close as the reality (as it is the case in the traditional Chinese art) as long as we can feel what it represents and the feeling it involves. I can feel the anxiety of the hectic city that is Hong Kong just by looking at this beautiful painting.

Galloping Horse by Xu Beihong (modern times): This is one of the famous galloping horses paintings by Xu Beihong. We studied this artist in class and it made me curious about him, I made a few researches and realized i loved his work. That is why I chose this image. I guess what I like the most is the mix of traditional Chinese art (ink, brush, an animal as a subject..) with the western drawing technique (especially of the light and dark). This artist succeeded in taking techniques in two very different arts and finally made the best of it.

Floating Highway Sectin: I took this picture on my first day in Hong Kong on the bus shuttle to City U. Just outside the airport there is construction on the new highway to decrease the congestion traveling in and out of the small island. In its current state, it is a temporary exhibition since construction will continue until the entire expansion is completed. I just like how they are just lone pillars that get added to until they complete the full structure. Another interesting point, is that the construction is similar to the mountains in the background. That they stand strong out of their surroundings and seem to defy what should be possible.

Cultural Center Barrier with Plan: Instead of simple concrete barriers in front of Hong Kong Cultural Centre, they have these creative, simple metal sculptures. They consist of a yellow matte inside with a shiny reflective stainless steel outside. These were great on their own, but later in the year I revisited the site and they included a plant inside of barrier that added a new level to the overall piece. Now if I analysis the piece, it has the warm yellow background, the green plant gives a cool color, and a nice neutral outside coating. This gives some good contrast between the warm and cool. The use of thin stainless steel gives the piece a modern, sharp look but smooth curves give a gentler impression that seems easy to approach. I would also like to mention the curve of the leaves also go together overarching curve of the barrier post creating some unity in this small simple road barrier.

Ceramic Pot at 10,000 Buddha Monaster: On the top of the 10,000 Buddha Monastery in Sha Tin you will find this inconspicuous pot in front of an old shrine. It might not have much attention being drawn to it, but I can never pass up a good ceramic pot. With its traditional blue and while styling and the complex foot support, this is an exceptional piece of art. There is more to this piece of pottery than just the colors because there is also two major points of interest on it. On the front is a tradition Chinese landscape painting. It has wet brush application to create the smooth mountains and water and a stiff brush to create the tree details and ground. It also utilized the white of the pottery to create the negative background and clouds. Around the top lip of the pot you see fungus and around the landscape painting there might be clouds or more fungus which are commonly used to symbolize long life. All these factors come together to create a little surprise that I did not expect at the Monastery.

PCB Inside of Mouse: This one is neat because the printed circuit board inside this mouse is not meant to be this visible. This mouse is located inside the City University of Hong Kong library and over many years the plastic’s rough surface has been smooth away to reveal a clear window into this inside of the mouse. It almost looks like another world with all the cylinders and prisms of different sizes that are back-lit by the red glow of the laser tracking system. This world that we generally interact with every day, but never really see is an odd fact of life these days; I was glad to be able to find this small treasure.

Mountain Ridge Overlooking Sai Kung: This picture is not of specific piece of art, but on the north side of Kowloon peak overlooking Sai Kung area you will find this beautiful area. To set the scene, it was lightly misting and the humid air blowing across the medium bamboo with a nice calm rustling. The sky was quiet with great visibility to see all the way across the New Territories to China. The green bamboo leaves with the outline of dull yellow creates some nice contrast as it melds into the distance. The rocks in the background tell a story as erosion has occurred and the upper rock has broken away and rolled down hill by a few meters. The unity of the picture is very nice with the general cool palate and the sparse rock formations giving some interesting places for the eye to travel. This is my favorite place so far in my time in Hong Kong.

[Calligraphy of the movie 'MAD WORLD'] After watching the movie, I know it’s about a relationship between a bipolar person and his family. The calligraphy of this movie poster is quite different than the usual Chinese calligraphy I saw on street. Based on my respect and appreciation of the movie, I wonder if there is any meaning behind the design of this calligraphy. Luckily, I found a piece of online news explaining the calligraphy. The calligraphy is designed by Wah-gor, who has constantly written calligraphy for different movie poster. The first Chinese character ‘一’ is not as smooth as I saw. He explained that it is the reflection of the story plot inside the movie, about the difficult adventure he is facing in the movie. I feel the heart behind the director and Wah-gor. I love the passion of the movie and this calligraphy. https://thestandnews.com/art/一念無明-電影標題研究-與黃進短談/

[18 stone lion statues] There are 18 stone lion statues before ender Tak Wah Park, each lion has its own attitude and they are all different. I am thinking the meaning behind placing 18 lion statues, I immediately came up with a idea of the pronunciation of 18 in Cantonese - 十八, which has a similar pronunciation of ‘實發’ as the romanisation meaning ‘getting rich’. If I do not look carefully, I would definitely miss the different details of each lion statue. Another meaning of placing lion statues I can think of is lion as one of the mysterious yet strong symbol in Chinese, which can protect people avoid from danger.

[Couplet door] Each couplet door is custom made. Using Tak Wah as the name of each door and make a couplet is definitely a must Chinese gardening. It is poetic and welcoming. People can understand more about the meaning of the name as "Tak Wah" by just four sentences. It is the beauty of Chinese characters - concise and comprehensive.

[Moon gate] These circle gate looks like a moon placing inside the park, which I found interesting and beautiful. The gate is not just as the function of letting people walk through but being part of the key elements of the park. The circular gate looks a frame involving the natural views behind them, just like a Chinese scholar art painting. With the title ‘探勝’ above the moon gate, part of the Chinese idiom of ‘尋幽探勝’, both have the meaning of finding a beautiful place during the adventure. I do think the meaning of moon gate is quite poetic.

[Waterfall in pond] I do know that one of the key elements of Chinese garden is to rebuild the natural beauty. In Tak Wah Park, it carries out the processing and transformation of building a waterfall inside a pond, the size is not too big but enough in this small park. The sound of the waterfall is refreshing. The day I went to Tak Wah park, I felt refreshing. It is a great choice having a walk when you are in stress.

A new year’s wish to people about money saving in every year, using the name of “fish” which is the same homonyms with money in chinese.

This paper-cut art is showing two birds standing on the branch with flowers

A 3D paper-cutting for fish

A flying bird

The name of the paper-cut called “Four animals” (a leopard, a gazelle, a lion and a eagle)

‘Leave it Blue’. This photo was taken in Odaiba, Tokyo, Japan. Although the scenery of the coastline was well captured, the focus of this photo was put on the ‘sky’. It was interesting that the upper right-hand corner blank space has attracted attention, even there were nothing captured in that area. Similar to ‘liu bai’ (literally, leaving white), the upper right-hand corner was left blank. This picture reminded me that some paintings would leave white spaces in their painting for calligraphy. Therefore, I named this photo as ‘Leave it Blue’.

‘Walking into the Green’. This photo was taken in Tuen Mun, Hong Kong. We can see the hikers were walking on the mountain road. The mountain road extended from the front of the camera to the back, which leads the readers to imagine the way they have walked from the hills at the back of the photo to the position captured in this photo. This reminded me the old landscape paintings of Chinese painters shown in the lecture, although the perspectives were presented differently. Paintings shown in lecture were mainly the whole view of the mountains. The painting skills and creativity of the painters have amazed me as even now we can hardly capture the view, similar to their paintings, with cameras.

‘The Old Clock’. This photo was captured in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. This photo reminded me the idea of finding the ‘focus’ in a picture learnt in lecture. The Clock Tower is right at the centre of the photo as the main focus of the photo. Tall trees were planted on the two sides and a pool was put right in front of the Tower, which gives a symmetrical view when taking photo of the photo. If the trees were not planted in this way, the Tower would be merged into the buildings at the back, then people may hardly take photo with the Tower as the focus. This design allows the Tower to stand alone in photos.

‘Shakespeare and his Minstrels’. This photo was captured in the Hong Kong Science Museum, Hong Kong. Although this is a photo illustrating optical illusion in paintings, this reminds me the lecture learning the difference of Eastern and Western paintings in the usage of colour. In this painting, complementary colours were used to show contrasts between objects. The tone of the painting is rather bright in total. Also, the patterns are drawn in a detailed and fine way. To me, these are the most remarkable characteristics of Western paintings, comparing to the Eastern figure paintings.

‘Dynamic City’. This photo was taken in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. In old Chinese paintings, the sceneries were mainly painted viewing the whole or just a focused part. I have seldom seen some paintings which were particularly captured in a symmetrical view. In my opinion, the painters always respect the nature, for instance, they rather draw the whole mountain or just a tree in their pieces. This makes me curious that if what would the ancient painters think when they saw the photographs taken by people nowadays.

This is a piece of Cloisonne (景泰藍) which I bought it from Beijing. It is a kind of Chinese traditional handicraft with over 600 years of history and one of the Chinese national intangible cultural heritage. It is a special and unique kind of craft which combines copper with the ceramics, bronze, painting and carving works where its production is all made by hand which include the design, padding making, thread weaving, drawing, burning, polishing and gilding etc.

This is a Chinese knotting (中國結) which is a traditional Chinese decorative handicraft art that began as a form of Chinese folk art in the Tang and Song Dynasty. In Chinese, "knot" means reunion, friendliness, peace, warmth, marriage etc. where Chinese knots are often used to express good wishes, including happiness, prosperity, love and the absence of evil. They are a distinctive and traditional Chinese folk handicraft woven separately from one piece of thread and named according to its shape and meaning. And the one shown in the picture is called Pan Chang knot (盤長結) indicates no beginning and no ending, reflecting the philosophy of Buddhism of endless rounds of birth and rebirth

This piece is an inside painted crystal ball where the technique of nei hua (內畫) inside painting was originated from the inside painted snuff bottles which involves glass bottles which have pictures and often calligraphy painted on the inside surface of the glass. To paint the inside of the glass or crystal, the artist must paint backwards with an extremely thin brush where the concentration is crucial as well to make precise strokes.

It is a bronze lotus-shaped incense burner. The top of the lid is adorned with a lotus flower surrounded by leaves which shows an image of lotus flower on gently undulating water. Incense is traditionally used in a wide range of cultural activities including religious ceremonies, ancestor veneration, traditional medicine and in daily life. And the shape of the lotus symbolizes ultimate purity of the heart and mind and perfection in the Chinese culture as it rises untainted and beautiful from the mud.

These two are Chinese seal, which are used traditionally to represent signatures in personal documents, office paperwork, contracts, art, or any item requiring acknowledgement or authorship. They are generally made of stone, sometimes of metals, wood, bamboo, plastic, or ivory, and are typically used with red ink or cinnabar paste (朱砂). Seals are also used on Chinese paintings and calligraphy works, usually imprinted in such works in the order of name seal, leisure seal and studio seal. Owners or collectors of paintings or books will often add their own studio seals to pieces they have collected as an act of appreciation towards the work.

Goldfish:When I first look at this photography, I immediately remember the life-drawing paintings from the painter Shen Zhou in the Ming dynasty, whose works were expressed by rapid freehand brushwork. In his work, you don’t see much details of the objects but you can find them extremely lifelike. It seems that a few brushes were only used. Similarly, we don’t see a single scale of the gold fishes in this photo. And it seems that every single fish can be drawn in one orange brush but they still look very life-like. It reminds me how the painters study the nature in order to capture the spirit of the living things .The composition also shows balanced shapes and rhythms.

Graffiti:I find that this wall of graffiti kind of resembles the traditional Chinese ink painting. The painter used single color paint and strokes to create this graffiti. Instead of shadowing, the painter applied some brush techniques in the graffiti. We can see there is change of widths in a same stroke. And the brush technique, which is used on the hair to create the texture, is like the flying white technique for the rocks in the Chinese landscape painting. Some texts were also written beside the graffiti, which seems to explain the graffiti and mark the name of the artist. It also reminds me the inscription in Chinese painting. It is very interesting to see the similarity since they are two very different mediums.

Chi Lin Nunnery:Through my study of the Buddhist mural, I learned that the Chi Lin Nunnery uses the traditional Tang Dynasty architecture with a design based on a mural of sutra illustration in the Mogao Caves. Taken from this angle, the photograph really resembles the mural. This composition also shows a sense of dignity and suggests the greatness of the temple as people is placed below. Given the fact that it was inspired by a wall painting which takes Tang building as the reference, it not only suggests a strong relationship between art, history, and religion but also how they can interact differently.

Fog and the mountains:This photo was taken in a recent foggy day. Because of the fog, it seems that the sea and the sky merged into one. Mi Youren’s paintings come to my mind as his paintings usually portray the scene of spectacular mountains in a cloudy day. Both show a natural and unrestrained view and has a dreamy quality about it. The fog can be also linked to the blank area in the Chinese painting, which is intentionally left and to portray sky and the water. The fog also separate the hill into different layers. It is like that a painter has used different shade of the ink to indicate the depth of the different mountains.

Red banners: Red banners are important elements in the Lunar new year. The vibrant and highly saturated red color of the banners is always linked to the joyous happy festival atmosphere, such as Chinese wedding ceremony. The gold color in the ancient China is a symbol of the status of the emperor. It is mostly considered as a symbol of luxury and wealth nowadays. The regular script writing on the banners delivers messages of good luck. The bold font not only suggests the eager of making the blessing come true but also make sure the red banner can be seen at a distance.

[Shwedagon Pagoda] This was taken in the biggest pagoda in Myanmar, besides the flocks of tourists, I saw many believers coming to the pagoda, praying desperately, and diligently lighting up candles and pouring water to all the different gods… Karma, karma – it seems more like the thing that keeps consuming them. But how would they know if they have done enough good deeds in exchange for a good aftermath? Are they driven by fear or their love for the gods? What, then, are their true gods? What if these gods do not even exist and all that they are doing are just in vain? Then, I wonder what their purpose in life truly is. So even under the glamour of the golden, shimmery pagoda, I could sense an overwhelming emptiness within the souls of the people. It leaves me thinking how can our deepest desires be fulfilled.

[Welcome?] Gates are opened but doors are closed, it says ‘Welcome’, but is it really so? This photo was taken in the China Town in Myanmar, I was first drawn by the contrasting reds and blues, however, when I saw the welcome sign, I just felt that something was lacking there- perhaps it’s the red light that has created the spooky feeling, the intention to welcome people to enter the house was not convincing. This makes me ponder on how open minded people can be, letting others to bombard on your values and perspectives… When they hear you, have they actually listened?

[Light of the world] I like the sun; I like it when my cheeks are warming up when under the sun. All the more, I like the idea of light casting out darkness; it gives hope to me. It’s only when facing the light that I will not live in the shadow; and it is through walking into the light that I will have no fear that long and dreadful shade of obscurity.

[Look! It's springtime!] I saw these flowers when I was walking on the way to school, feeling burdened… But then, when I looked up, the white and pink pedals of the flowers caught my sight, the amazement gushed out from my soul. I was amazed not only because of the colourful pedals but also because of the timing of the bloom. For me, I feel like springtime is one of the most conflicting seasons, reason why is that it’s when school is the busiest while it's the most beautiful time of the year… Isn’t this how life is? Despite all the bumps that come in your way, beauty will always be found if we zoom out our focus on our problems.

[Magic in the rain] This was taken when I was travelling with my father; it was a cold rainy night. As we were on our way searching for the hotel, the greens, yellows and reds of the traffic lights reflected on any surface that was wet, amplifying all the colours at once. Yet, the dim street still pervaded a sense of loneliness, adding a touch of mystery to my journey with my father. At some point I almost thought the rain would spoil my holiday, who would have thought that the rain can do magic like this?

The photo shows the Big Buddha on Lantau Island in Hong Kong. It is like a portrait of the Tian Tan Buddha with the trees as the accompanying decorations which gives a feeling of peace. The Buddha is place at the centre of the photo as the only subject to be focused. The technique of Leave Plain in Chinese paintings has also been applied to the photo.

The plain colour of the houses in the photo makes it look like houses drawn in Chinese paintings, while the skill of using an eye-catching colour to emphasize the subject (the red house at the front) is used. The perspective used in the photo is like a painter draws on the opposite side of the living area, in fact the photo was taken on a cruise in the middle of the river. The technique of Leave Plain in Chinese paintings is also used in the upper part of the photo.

The tree frozen by the extreme weather in Finland is like the willow tree in many typical Chinese painting. The clouds in the sky form a horizontal line as if it is a stroke in ink. The colour of the sky and sunset as a background and the tree at the front are like the synthesis between east and west, combining ink and colour to draw a willow tree with a coloured background. For the composition of the photo, it also uses a rather Western skill which is putting the core subject (the tree) in a significant position, and making other objects small.

It is the St. Catherine’s Passage in the Old Town of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. Although the photo was not taken in China, we could still find some Chinese elements. The stone building with the brick-red roof tiles makes it feels like Chinese-style. The concept of painting (capturing) the live is also shown in this photo that there are rear views of the old couple as the subject walking on the walkway towards the tunnel.

The photo was taken on a mountain called Uetliberg in Zurich, Switzerland. It gives a feeling of Chinese traditional landscape painting as if the mountains are drawn in ink. It can be imagined that the five shades of ink are used to draw the mountains. The closer the mountain, the thicker the colour of ink, and it turns lighter gradually as the distance gets further. The main difference between the photo and a landscape painting is that the area below the mountains is usually water in Chinese paintings, while there is a layer of clouds instead of water in the photo.

the photo reminds me of the composition in the western paintings, where the core of the picture is placed in the significant location. and the contrast of color and shadow (light) to emphasize the core. and it reminds me of the abstractionism and symbolism in western painting

the photo reminds me of the perspective drawing in the western paintings. the road in the middle shows the perspective of the drawing clearly and the core (houses) are placed in significant location in the painting. and colorful houses are common in Europe and its color catches people's attention.

It is a picture took outside the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall. I went there once before but it was closed that day. The Sculpture outside, which is show in the photo is so impressive. It is describing a mother carrying her child’s dead body in the Nanjing Massacre. The sculpture is not very detailed. But rough surface of it reminds me of the calligraphy. Calligraphy is a art of brush written Chinese characters, expressive lines and dots made possible by a soft and supple brush in the hand of a skilled user. then in my point of view, this sculpture is a calligraphy in solid, rough and impressive angles of the sculpture shows the sadness and desperate of the mother in the Nanjing Massacre. I agree that the sculpture is more impressive with rough surface instead of a detailed sculpture.

the picture remind me of the Chinese calligraphy we learnt in the class. Common type of calligraphy we see includes seal script, clerical script, regular script, running script and cursive script. it is took in the shanghai's MTR. and the use of The calligraphy makes the transportation look more localized. the characters in the photo looks like seal script to me. it looks circular and balance form of strokes.

the picture reminds me the western paintings we came across in the lessons. It was took in the sunset so the reflection of light in the sky is the core. it reminds me of the composition as well as the arrangement of light and dark in Western paintings. And the white of the cloud reflected in the photo reminds me of the fusion of Chinese and western painting. If this picture is a painting in ancient china, the cloud can be drawn with either the liu bai techniques usually used in traditional China painting or the white color in western painting. from my point of view, i think that it is more suitable to use the white color if drawing this scenario in painting as it can make a larger contrast with the other part of the painting, that is the sunset and the shadow of the trees and mountains.

This is the capture of an artwork taken in National Art Museum of China. Different levels of strength of the brushwork creates a simple but profound effect in this painting. The artist uses thick dark ink over the light ink and blue ink, creating different layers. This is similar to the features of the artworks by Huang Binhong. Also, the element of subtlety can also be found, such as the sailboat.

This photo is captured in Hong Kong MTR. The element of symmetry is emphasized. Hong Kong is a densely-populated city. It is rare to see this phenomenon (barely no people in MTR) in Hong Kong. This creates a sense of stillness and a contrast to the reality.

The main character in this photograph is the girl on the right side. Although the proportion of her occupied area is not high, the modern scenery of Hong Kong behind accentuates the existence of the main character. The girl standing alone with the tall buildings and the light emitted by the buildings creates senses of loneliness and tranquility. The contrast of light and dark is also a crucial element in aesthetics.

This is a public sculpture found in Tamar Park. The name of this artwork is “Fruit Market”. In my opinion, different types of materials in each of the drawer symbolize the variety of occupations in Hong Kong including fruit markets. On the other hand, the drawers symbolize the dominance of “office work” in Hong Kong as Hong Kong is a commercial international city after all.

This photograph is taken in a Chinese restaurant. We can see the preservation of the utensils and decorations of traditional Chinese restaurant. On another perspective, this can be also considered as a combination of art and culture with modern technology. This also bring out the sense of belonging of a Chinese.

This picture was shot at eye level, in which, the level of the platform was exactly at the middle of the picture when the railway was at the bottom. It creates parallel lines extended from the two sides of the picture. Such simple and regular composition of picture has established a sense of stillness and harmony to the viewers. Besides, the major color used in the picture was reddish-brown. The use of warm light and monochromatic tone of colors have also constructed a warm and calm atmosphere through the picture.

It was a picture taken in the Tokyo Disneyland. It was taken from a high angle while the upper parts of the decorations were easily seen. Besides, the colorful lights and decorations have purposefully contrasted with the dim background to create a sense of mystery and fascination. Such contrasting color allowed visitors to feel like being in a dream or an unrealistic world.

It is seen that the light was coming from the top that the shadow of the bridge was right below itself. It tells viewers the time of taking this picture was in the noon. Moreover, trees from two sides of the river have created shadows that only the river and the tower were bright in color. It helps to emphasize the main subjects and tell viewers what is important in the picture.

This picture of flowers mainly consist of three colors, green, white, and yellow. In which, dark green in the background contrasted with the bright white and yellow has accentuated the flowers. Colors of the flowers have therefore become even brighter and more eye-catching. Besides, the flowers were growing in irregular patterns. It tells viewers that the flowers were not artificially planted but grew freely in the nature.

This picture uses the triangular composition to create perspective. It is symmetrical that the focus of the picture is right in the center. It is seen that diagonal lines extended from the corners are straight and are meeting up at the center. Closer objects occupied more spaces when the further occupied fewer. For instance, the nearer pillars are taller than those in the back. It allows viewers to see the distance and the perspective.

This calligraphy is exhibited in Mausoleum of Mao Zedong in Changsha. In China, the function of characters does not confined to information exchange. In fact it could be appreciated as an artwork. At the beginning, Cursive script was created to reduce the time of writing, but later it deviated from its practicability since it became very difficult to recognize the characters, just like the calligraphy of the photo. I could only recognized several characters in this work. It is a poem called Shaoshan Revisited (七律到韶山). It is said that this work was done by Mao, although I could hardly recognized the three characters in it. Based on the knowledge I learnt in the class, I think it is the wild cursive script since the brushstroke is wild and free, and indeed it is hardest to recognize among other types of Cursive script. In addition, we could see the author daubed the wrong word as well. I know very little about the calligraphy, but I chose it because of the momentum and passion transmitting to me. Although the composition is not regular, it strangely maintains the balance which makes the audience feel comfortable to read.

This is a silk from the Mawangdui Han Tombs in Hunan which belonged to a marchioness in Han dynasty. This kind of silk is called Longevity embroideries and the pattern and color are made by the silk thread with different colors, like light henna, olive green, purple-grey and dark green. At first, I thought the pattern of the silk is composed of big and small clouds and according to the lecture note, it is a motif of blessings, like longevity and good fortune. However, the description of the silk in the museum indicates that there are not only cloud, but the phoenix and cornel could be observed as well. Phoenix is a powerful creature which represents the high status and auspiciousness, while cornel is a plant which could drive out the evil and bring long life. Therefore, the silk represents the wish of the tomb’s master or her family to drive out misfortune and to become long life. Since the silk was used to cover the body of the master, it may also mean protecting her to the heaven.

They are also from the Mawangdui Han Tombs which consist of five lacquer dishes, a goblet, a flanged cup and a tray. My first impression of the lacquers is that they do not look like ancient objects since the colors are bright and contrastive. The base color of the lacquers is red and the artisans use black and celadon to paint the pattern. Similarly, the major motif of the lacquers is cloud while at the bottom of the dishes, it is said that the word “君幸食” was written although I could not identify it. The meaning of the word means “please enjoy the food” and it appears on many lacquers of the tombs. The lacquers represent the advanced technique of Han dynasty to color and create different types of lacquer. According to the 《Discourses on Salt and Iron》, a flanged cup need the effort of a hundred people and thus the value of it equaled to ten bronze cup. Therefore, the master of the tomb was very rich that she owned so many lacquer. Unfortunately, due to the prosperity of porcelain, the industry faded away after Han dynasty.

The four calligraphies belong to the Lingyin Temple in Hangzhou. I chose this photo because the calligraphies represent different scripts. There are not many information about these calligraphies and thus I had to guess the meanings of them. Concerning the work at the right hand side, I am quite sure it is seal script, while for the two in the middle of the temple, I believe they are running script. Firstly, there are no “silkworm head and wild goose tail” form of writing, so it should be regular script, but since it is cursive form of regular script, it should be running script. As for the work in left hand side, it may be the modern cursive script since the brushstroke is wild and free. The word is hard to recognize and someone said it means treasure of the Dragon Palace “龍宮珍藏” but I think it is still hard to match. Although the calligraphies were used to name the building, it became the indivisible part of the whole artwork which is the temple. Compare with the western countries, they seldom put the name of the architecture on itself, while Chinese people regards it as a decoration since calligraphy itself is a treasure.

This is a container of the Maya culture. I chose it because there are some common features with Chinese lacquer. Firstly, it is obvious that red and black colors are common in ancient societies all over the world, like in the Chinese Neolithic period, the color of the pottery also only had the background color, black and red at the early stage. Secondly, both of them use the curve shape pattern which may represent the cloud and the circles at the edge may represent the sun. If my guess is correct, it shows the popularity of the worship of nature, no matter in which region. Finally, the creature on the top of the container looks like the dragon in China. Chinese dragon mainly evolved from snake and ancient people worshiped snake since it represents reproduction and power. Similarly, maybe the Maya people believed the power of snake as well, thus they create such an artifact.

This photo is taken in Nam Sang Wai. The small wood pier with the beautiful view attracts many people to take a photo, especially in a nice weather. The glorious blue sky with cloud and the lake which is flat like mirror make people quiet and nice. I think it would be a good view to paint with landscape and small proportion of human figures and I think of the difference of painting style between Chinese and western. First, the brushwork of the sky with cloud will be different. In Chinese painting, artists may use the line or the wash of ink in various darkness to present the sky with cloud. There will be leave-paint in the sky. But for the western oil painting, they will paint the baby-blue color for the sky and paint white color for the cloud. For the white, leave-paint or paint is a great difference between two styles. Then, the flat and quiet lake makes a very clear reflection in the water and that reminds me it is hard to find a clear reflection in Chinese landscape painting. Because artists focus on abstractionism and symbolism. The artists paint with their interests and feelings. But they may focus on the grass near the camera. Because the brushwork can show the details with the landscape. Opposite with that, I can imagine that western style painters will paint it as real as a photo.

This photo was taken in the Flower Market during the Chinese New Year. Orchid is one of the Four Gentlemen in Chinese traditional culture. It represents the refinement like the scholars with graceful manners. Also, orchids have its own unique shape and refined appearance. Therefore, it is very popular among people. However, when looking up to see these orchids, there is a great contrast from its original impression. They are mostly in pink or purple with red ribbon and accessories like the ladies in the beauty pageant standing on the stage. They lift up their heads with self-confidence and try their best to show off their beauties. When the orchids hanging the price on, they seem like yelling “Pick me! Pick me!” It just like the gentlemen have to endure the humiliation to finish their tasks. Singers or actors on the stage dress up and show their best to audience. They put on the masks and do their duties. People may think what they get just appearance. But the most important is the performers do not forget themselves.

This photo is taken in the Kun Ting Study Hall which is one of the 1st grade cultural heritage in the Ping Shan heritage trail. It had been used both as an ancestral hall and a place of study since 1870s. The building is a beautiful piece of craftsmanship, especially the wooden doors. The pattern on the frame is very detailed. The distinguished design in the interior reflects the impressive skills of the craftsmen of that time. Another eye-catching thing is the craftworks of bamboo. As we know, bamboo is one of the Four Gentlemen in traditions. It represents the moral fortitude of the scholars. It is good and meaningful to put the bamboo crafts on the doors of study room.

This photo is taken in the Tai O cultural studio which is an area displays the items the residents used in the old days. This part is about the traditional wedding ceremony. And we can see that every items present different meanings, for example the two coconuts is a wish to have a family with with grandson because of its Cantonese pronunciation. I think it is good to preserve those items to introduce the history of our Hong Kong, especially it started with lives like in Tai O, a little port.

This photo is also taken in Tai O which is a place famous for producing the shirmp paste. And it is the scene we saw when people dry it out. This photo shows a clear perspective that all the circle tray are in the same size but they look so different in my angle. Then, it reminds me the painters would not care the perspective so much in Chinese painting but they painted what they want to present. The most memorable painting about this issue is “Ladies concert in Five Dynasties” and I can imagine if this view is drawn in a Chinese painting style would be like all the circle are in same size.

The picture shown a Chinese shuimo painting, it has been used as a bedroom decoration in a rich family. It mixed Chinese classic painting into modern bedroom design which is a significant feature. The theme of this shuimo painting is bamboo, it is a very usual theme for Chinese shuimo painting. Bamboo is a kind of evergreen plant, for Chinese people, bamboo has multiple meanings.

This picture shown another type of classic Chinese painting, the technique that it uses called Gongbi, it is different from the shuimo style. The paintings that used gongbi are usually in meticulous style. As shown on the picture, the painting is more detail and colorful, which are the characteristics of gongbi painting. Flowers and birds represent joy and energy. This painting is shown as a decoration in a luxury hotel, which matches with the “court-style” of this painting.

This picture shows the blue and white ceramic flower vases. Blue and white ceramic is made of Chinastone, Kaolinte, glaze and cobalt. It could be made in different shapes under high-temperature heating. People will make ceramic into different shapes and produce different kinds of containers for daily use. Vase is one of the products that Chinese people love to make. It can show the luxuries of the owners.

This is a picture of a Chinese calligraphy; there are different types of Chinese calligraphy, seal script, clerical script, regular script, running script and cursive script. And the calligraphy in this picture is in running script. This is pasted in an office next to the office pantry. The word mean “quiet” and “peaceful” as it is to remind people to be quiet in their working place.

This picture is a Chinese New Year painting; it is also called “Nianhua”. Chinese people will decorate their home with painting like this. It is believed that this kind of painting will bring good luck. In this picture, the meaning behind is “to have good fortune and money every year”.

Chinese Gate in Chinatown: This photo was taken in London’s Chinatown. According to the information provided Visit London, this gate was built in 2016, which is the largest Chinese gate in the UK, and it is built in traditional Qing Dynasty style. The Chinese gate is full of Chinese elements, for example dragons, clouds and Chinese calligraphy. When I first saw this gate, I could immediately find lots of dragons on it. In Chinese culture, dragon is a legendary creature and it usually has linkage with emperor. During Ming and Qing Dynasties, dragons with five claws represented emperor and his close family. Since all dragons on this Chinese gate have five claws, it gives a proof that the gate is built according to Qing Dynasty style. Moreover, there are clouds on the gate which symbolize long life and good fortune. Besides, the red color of this gate has grabbed my attention. The designer of this gate has chosen “sacrificial red” but not “western red”, so to make it look more similar to Chinese constructions.

Death and Alive of Hydrangea Macrophylla: It is not difficult to find hydrangea macrophylla in summer Japan as they will be used to decorate the streets. However, if taking the street views broadly without focusing on the flowers, the beauty of the flowers would be ignored and hardly appreciate. Therefore, in order to record their beauty, I gave them a close-up. I think the photo has created a miniature universe, just like Sparrows, Plum Blossoms, and Bamboo painted in the late 12th century. All the elements are concentrated and enlarged in here, so people’s attention would only focus on them. Furthermore, the purple hydrangea macrophylla in centre position stands out clearly against the green leaves and dried yellow flowers. In fact, I was touched by this photo. It is because among those withered flowers, strong vitality of the purple flower is highlighted, and make it even more outstanding in the picture.

Pink Sky: This is the most special and gorgeous sky that I have ever seen. As you can see, the sky is composed by different colors, including blue, white, black, grey, pink and also pinkish orange. Although the colors spread randomly, they do not look messy but they all exist in harmony. This photo reminds me some of the Zhang Daqian’s splashed-color landscape paintings, but Zhang was used to use jade blue and pale green in his paintings so to produce the image of mountains. Zhang’s splashed-color paintings have always been considered as great art works, and I think this sky is also a fantastic art work created by nature.

Street View in Bath: The composition of this photograph is more like a Western painting than Chinese painting, and it makes me think of a Western painting, The Avenue at Middelharnis painted by Meindert Hobbema, which has been discussed in class. Because of the buildings with same color on the two sides of the street, linear perspective, a skill of creating an illusion of depth and breadth in a flat surface, has been applied unconsciously in this photo. Because of linear perspective, the photo seems more stereoscopic, and the scenery of the street reappear in my mind. However, in my opinions, if the white van could disappear in this photo, it would be more perfect and the effect of linear surface could be more obvious.

Takachiho Gorge in Kyushu: This photo gives me a sense of tranquility, and it seems leading me to escape from metropolis and create a way to a brand new world which is far away from reality. This photo was taken when I was riding a boat and enjoyed the pleasant scenery, so the viewpoint of this picture should be from the bottom to the top. Similar to many landscape paintings in ancient China, rocky mountains, rivers and waterfall are the main components of this landscape photo. Besides, there are people riding a boat and ducks swimming in the river in this picture, and these can seldom be seen in Chinese landscape paintings. Including people and animals in the photo and paintings would make them look more vivid and lively.

This photo was taken at Shing Mun Reservoir. The model inside looked upward to created the sense of perspective that observers would follow him to look upward. And the trees were so tall and packed which created a sense of oppression. This reminds me of the technique of "shifting perspective" in lecture two. It also used the different perspectives which were mentioned in Guo Xi’s theory in Chinese painting, for example, Gao yuan (high perspective), Shen yuan (deep perspective), and Ping yuan (level perspective).

This photo was taken at Nepal. And it is a great example to illustrate the concept in Chinese landscapes. Landscape represents the scenery of nature, and it is also expressing the idea of reclusion. In the photo, there was a temple built nearby the Himalaya which was hard to go. It reduced disturbance from external world by isolating the news and people from outside. It allowed people there to have reclusion. The message inside was just like the pictorial in Yuan Dynasty, for example, the scenes of scholars in boats or in caves which was related to the Daoist idea of hidden reality.

This photo was taken at Lugard Road, The Paek. The building in the middle was ICC. This image created a sense of escape, and of entering into a virtual world which was slient and peaceful. In the photo, the photographer was trying to capture the moment that Hong Kong was paused from hustle and bustle. What he could hear and see were only the wind breezing and clouds engulfing the city. The endless cloud in the background signifies the immeasurable distance of nature for human being. For me, it reminds me of Wang Meng's works. He wanted to express the feelings towards escaping from the unpleasant and chaotic realities of social and political aspect. Wang Meng used the scenes of scholars in caves to express his feelings instead of writing it in black and white.

This photo was also taken at Nepal. It fits the concept of Chinese landscape which creates a way as to lead the spectator on a journey though the landscape. When you were looking at the photo, you would observe from the road nearby and followed the path to “climb” to the top of the mountain.

This photo was taken at Tsim Sha Tsui. It was a calligraphic artwork by Mr. Tsang Tsou Choi who was well-known as the King of Kowloon. Tsang's artworks were called Chinese calligraphy or Shufa (書法). They were a rigorous literary discipline as well as a highly sophisticated art form. Tsang's writing includes dates, locations, family’s ancestry, curses, and most often, his claim as the King of Kowloon. They were just like the famous artists writing poems or singing in their products. The language is fragmented and omits punctuation. People need to read it and rearrange the words in order to understand what do they mean.

Drawing on the wall. This photo is taken from one of the mansion in Kaiping. The picture itself is not very special. Basically, it depicts the scenarios of one of their family member accepting reward sent from the emperor. This picture stood out to me because it reminds me one of the function of painting is for teaching. According to the tour guide, this painting not only serve for the purpose of honoring the family member, it also serve as an educational tool to teach the rest of the family to be loyal and hardworking like their ancestor. In addition, on the right of the painting, you can also see the word “詩禮儒家”, emphasizing the importance of traditional virtue and Confucianism, which often appears in many other forms of Chinese art.

Landsape. This photo is taken from Montserrat Mountain, Spain. Also it is not exactly like the landscape painting from Song Dynasty which has image of water in it. It dose give e a sense of escapism. From the point of view, you cannot really see the end of it. It just seems like there is endless mountain and you are just in the middle of nowhere and therefore nothing can interrupt you. What this photo reminds me the most of Chinese art is that this mountain legendarily hosted the Virgin of Montserrat sanctuary and which is identified with the location of the Holy Grail in Arthurian myth. The idea of a mountain being related to god significantly reminds me of the landscape in Chinese painting.

Blue and white porcelain. This photo is taken in National Gallery of victoria. This porcelain is one of pieces of their collection of Chinese art. However, it is not a product from China. It is a porcelain ware, which European tried to mimic Chinaware. It reminds me of one of the group presentation, which introduced the famous blue and white porcelain. The European fancy Chinaware because their were not yet able to product that white clay at the time and the blue was not as vibrant as the Chinaware does. This piece is interesting to me because it is a chinaware which still contain a western shape (the lit). Also, you can see that they mimic the Chinese portrait style by adopting the abstractionism but not the western realism.

red pocket. This is a design for red pocket i found online. It is not a traditional red pocket design but still it adopted the practice of using motif. In the picture, there is a lady playing an instrument. The word represents both the meanings of both “music” and “happiness”. Just like the common motif (e.g. fish and bats), it meant for wishing a good life.

game card. I accidentally saw this game card from a café. The creature on it is actually inspired by taotie. From its description, this card can be use to attack your opponent in a battle or use to restore your life point. I am guessing the designer took the reference of the legend of Taotie, which refers this creature as an ever-devouring beast with symmetric face that is protective and a symbolic representation of the forces of nature.

Papercutting. I took this photo at Lanzhou when I was on a trip. As “Along the River During the Qingming Festival” is a well-known painting that produced in Song dynasty to capture the daily lives of citizens and the landscape in that particular area. This art used “papercutting” to resemble the original painting by the Song dynasty artist Zhang Zeduan. The paper cutting version of the painting is really attractive while the art can still show the details of the landscape and figures. As usual, Chinese painting are not in scale, as the most important person is presented in a bigger way to emphasis his position. In this painting, you can see the people are in same sizes, which implies that all the citizens are in same level of the social hierarchy.

Sugar painting. There are many different surfaces and mediums for painters to work on, such as on scrolls, albums, or fans, etc. However, some of them are always neglected, such as the traditional sugar painting, which has been Hong Kong’s intangible cultural heritage due to the sunset tradition’s decline. Sugar painting uses hot, liquid sugar to create three-dimensional figures, and it can still be seen in some traditional festival carnival. I took this photo at Shatin Central Park during the Mid-Autumn Festival. Although this art form wasn’t mentioned in the lecture, it still holds a significance and should be appreciated for its mastery in crafts. The technique of making this art like using the brush to create a diagram yet sugar is used instead of ink to present the painting.

Calligraphy (Minibus). The script used in the minibus to show out the destination is a regular script. This is one of the calligraphy works that still applies in our daily life, as you can see it very often. As this traditional calligraphic style has been applied in the mini bus a long time ago, it has turned into a stereotype; all of the minibus board are written in this way. Those art work presented in the keychains and files is a trendy way for people to appreciate some “nostalgic” elements. This can let more youngsters to understand the calligraphy and appreciate it, as this kind of works are also aesthetically attractive.

Flower plaque. This kind of traditional banner are made on the scaffolding when there have some special events. I took this picture in Tsing Yi during Chun Kwan’s birthday, it is also where some traditional Cantonese opera performances were held and special food store were located. The peacock showed at the top of the plaque means “luck”. This is another way to symbolize luck, other than the element of the Nianhua.

Chinese New Year Painting (Nianhua). The traditional version of Nianhua is mainly using the dull colour. As the era has changed day by day, those traditional ways to present is already outdated or maybe are not attractive at all. Therefore, it used more fresh colours and comics way to present the idea of Nianhua - to bring good luck to the family in the Chinese New Year. To change the style and use more colour in the painting can still convince the people nowadays to use Nianhua. This can help to retain the traditional element and meaning of Nianhua.

This photo is taken in the campus of university of electronic science and technology of China, The photo reflects a focus in the middle bottle. The long street is guarded by two line of high trees. The virtue effects is just like the road is unlimited. In Chinese ancient paintings there is a skill called shenyuan(深远) to show the huge world after a mountain. This image can lead to an image about where is the end.

This is a piece of handwriting by my classmates. It ‘s definitely a very beautiful handwriting in nowadays because we can find a framework or a structure in every character. The left part of the character is usually small but the right part is stressed.

This photo is taken in Osaka. Although it is a Japanese building. But the simple color which contains gray white and indigo reflects a traditional Chinese Confucianism theory that gentleman should be modest , peaceful and indifferent to fame and wealth .

The first photo is taken in the campus of university of electronic science and technology of China, The photo reflects a focus in the middle bottle. The long street is guarded by two line of high trees. The virtue effects is just like the road is unlimited. In Chinese ancient paintings there is a skill called shenyuan(深远) to show the huge world after a mountain. This image can lead to an image about where is the end. The second is a piece of handwriting by my classmates. It ‘s definitely a very beautiful handwriting in nowadays because we can find a framework or a structure in every character. The left part of the character is usually small but the right part is stressed. The third one is taken in Osaka. Although it is a Japanese building. But the simple color which contains gray white and indigo reflects a traditional Chinese Confucianism theory that gentleman should be modest , peaceful and indifferent to fame and wealth . The fourth picture reflects the mixture of eastern and western culture. Buildings clearly told us it’s a modern city under the influence of western urbanization. But you know it’s an eastern city because the character of the city, the plant and so on. Anyway you know it’s eastern. The fifth is also a mixture of eastern and western culture. But in other words it’s a mixture of old and new. The buildings are shabby and poor, the vehicles are also very cheap although there is a car. The young man in the middle dress himself in strange to show his character. However we can’t find any positive factors inside, the community lost its culture lost its direction. Now it is confused in front of the time.

The first photo is taken in the campus of university of electronic science and technology of China, The photo reflects a focus in the middle bottle. The long street is guarded by two line of high trees. The virtue effects is just like the road is unlimited. In Chinese ancient paintings there is a skill called shenyuan(深远) to show the huge world after a mountain. This image can lead to an image about where is the end. The second is a piece of handwriting by my classmates. It ‘s definitely a very beautiful handwriting in nowadays because we can find a framework or a structure in every character. The left part of the character is usually small but the right part is stressed. The third one is taken in Osaka. Although it is a Japanese building. But the simple color which contains gray white and indigo reflects a traditional Chinese Confucianism theory that gentleman should be modest , peaceful and indifferent to fame and wealth . The fourth picture reflects the mixture of eastern and western culture. Buildings clearly told us it’s a modern city under the influence of western urbanization. But you know it’s an eastern city because the character of the city, the plant and so on. Anyway you know it’s eastern. The fifth is also a mixture of eastern and western culture. But in other words it’s a mixture of old and new. The buildings are shabby and poor, the vehicles are also very cheap although there is a car. The young man in the middle dress himself in strange to show his character. However we can’t find any positive factors inside, the community lost its culture lost its direction. Now it is confused in front of the time.

This is the dining table in my home during Chinese New Year, there is flower and red pocket in the flower vase together, which provide a pleasant feeling of blooming and wealthy. And the big orange in front of the vase is also a part of visual delight in the picture. Why I chose this photo? As both flower and orange represent good fortunate meaning, orange –大吉大利, flower-花開富貴. Like the examples in week10 topic—The Decoration and Meaning in Chinese Porcelain, Fish symbolize abundance, pomegranate is a symbol of fertility. In this picture, we feel a strong atmosphere of good wish in coming New Year.

Xian Great Wall, last year I traveled to a city with long history and also the capital of Shanxi Province in central China. This was my first time to see The Great Wall, it was very long and strong, I can feel their extremely hard work and this Great Wall is really unbreakable as it was established from warring state period, it already over 2200 years. Every piece of the brick consists several drops of sweat of the old people. As Xian is very foggy, the fog in this picture make the Great Wall more mysterious and more solemnly. The shadow of high buildings at the back provide a strong comparison with The Great Wall.

The beach of Xiamen Bay in Sai Kung. This picture create a feeling of escape, and a path walking into a new world. From the position of the photographer, she is walking into the new world along this path. It is a landscape image, much like those painted in Song dynasty. Also, the picture pointed out one main feature of Northern Song landscape painting, mountain and water.

The village of Xian, in this photo, the path of the village is the focus and it extend of limited space of the picture. The photographer provide a scientific perspective to viewers. The build encapsulated the traditional building style, triangle roof, one floor structure, many lanterns outside the gate. The road is built by rocks, it is really old style but this village shows the life of villagers are simple, pure and true, make me feel peace and relax.

Decoration from Chinese New Year Festival, this image links art and culture together. This festival is very vital in cultural calendar in Hong Kong, we can say that this is the utmost important festival for Chinese people. It is because people will group together as a unit of family, they will give wish and have dinner together, we call it 團年飯. Elder generation will express their wish to children or other people by giving them red pocket. I took this photo when I was having dinner with my relatives. The peach blossom means good fortunate in coming year, also peach blossom means love and affinity in traditional Chinese culture. Families group together and celebrate the festival by enjoying the delicious food and beautiful flower is the best meaning of Chinese New Year Festiva.

This photo was taken in the City University campus with a pavilion and a pond nearby. In the lesson, we learnt that architecture was not a common topic in the Chinese art until the later period in China. Before it the mainstream of Chinese painting is the landscape which focuses on the trees and scenery. I think this photo is very good in combining two main themes in the Chinese art for practicing what we have learnt.

This is a picture taken from the Hillside road in City University and with an arched door in it. In this picture there are many rocks built near the photo. If the drawing is painted in ink color, we can use some very dark ink color with a dried brush to illustrate the thickness and texture of the road.

This is another pavilion taken in City University from bottom to top. The perspective reminds me the drawing by Fan Kuan "The Travelers Amid Streams and Mountains" which he also drew the picture looking from the bottom to the top of the mountains.

This is a picture taken from a forest in Japan during my trip. This picture reminds me a drawing painted by Fan Kuan, "The Travelers Amid Streams and Mountains" where he used different kinds of brushstrokes to illustrate different kinds of tree leaves. There are different kind of tree leaves in my photo therefore I think this photo is a very good example to practice Fan Kuan's brushstrokes.

This is a picture taken from the Western District pier in the evening.The sky is very clear at that time and the waves keep beating against the coast. This picture is taken in a horizontal perspective. In the lesson I have learnt that water can be added to the ink to represent some light color, therefore I think this picture can some very light ink color to draw the sky and leave other spaces in blank, where as the the sea water can use a deeper ink color with less water add in to demonstrate the contrast.

This is the photo that I took in the Tsing Yi Tin Hau Temple. From this photo, we can see that there are two paintings of Door God (門神) on the door of the Tsing Yi Tin Hau Temple. In Chinese belief and tradition, they think that the Door God is the guardian that can protect the occupant of the house by keeping different evils away from entering the house. It can be treated as a kind of the spiritual comfort of the occupant. Generally, the door god have an image which is dignified, prestige, especially their facial expression. They usually hold the weapon in their hand. They look like a “winner”. These show that the ability of the door god to expel the evil spirits. Nowadays, It is still very common in the small village in Hong Kong to place the traditional painting with the door god on their front doors. People must place the Two Door Gods facing each other. They believe that it will bring bad luck to the occupant if they place back to back. The clothing and the background of the painting are mainly red in colour. Red is considered as good fortune in China. Furthermore, people in different time will use different Chinese mythological character worshiped as the Door God.

This is the photo that I took in the Tsing Yi Sports Centre. It is an art work that contain lots of different style of the Chinese Calligraphy. This is the art work made by Law Hon-Wah which paraphrase the famous calligraphy Lanting Preface of a Chinese calligrapher of Wang Xi Zhi in the form of crossword puzzle. Some of the word appear in this mural for more than one time but they do not look the same. For example, the word “今” and 之, appear for several time. The brushstrokes are not regular and different for the same word. From this photo, there are some word are in Regular script and look more tidy For example, “是”, “日” . The word “後” at the bottom part of the mural is the running script. It is a good mural to observe different styles of Chinese calligraphy in one art work. The mural is attractive as it combines the tradition Calligraphy in a modern presentation in a novel way which is a crossword puzzle.

This is the photo was taken in Tsing Yi, which is the Stone Lion. In Chinese Tradition, they believe that the stone lion can protect their house. Which is similar to the concept Zhenmushou which is my project topic but these for the living people. The fearsome face, with the exposed teeth which can effectively to scare the evil away, to make the occupant of the house feel more comfortable. They are also appearing in pair. China do not have lion before Han Dynasty, which is same with Zhenmushou, the image of both of them are affected by the foreign culture which benefited by the Silk Road. They usually sitting on a platform and playing a ball in their hand. Stone Lion still popular and easy to find in every place. This show the belief in god, soul and spirit in Chinese.

This photo is an artwork in Tsing Yi on several piece ceramic tiles. It applied some technique used in the Chinese landscaping. In this artwork, we can see the mountains and a tree (seems like plum blossom). This use different types of the texture stroke, such as cutting mountain stroke for the mountain. In Chinese tradition, people love plum blossom with highly appreciation. They call Bamboo, Plum Blossom, orchid, chrysanthemum as “Four Gentlemen”. These four plants have a relatively high status in Chinese Society and they always use them as the topic of different type of Chinese artwork. Plum Blossom has the symbolic meaning that “indomitable” because Plum Blossom can be still beautiful even living in the cold, poor condition in winter. In this artwork, it completely shows the characteristic of the plum blossom. The artist is careful on the petal and twig, even for the plum blossoms which located far away.

This photo that I took is from the poster of Hong Kong Heritage Museum related to the wedding ceremony of the Qing Emperor which posted in the Tsing Yi Library. It applied some traditional Chinese element. Chinese emperor was the son of the sky and the dragon represent the respected position of the emperor. The painting contains lots of people preparation for the Emperor’s wedding. It shows the importance of that wedding ceremony. The face of them do not contain any detailed face expression, as Chinese painting usually do not emphasize too much about the reality. The size of every people are the same. No matter where the people located, near or far away, still have the same size in the painting. It makes me to remember with the painting which called “唐人宮樂圖”in Tang Dynasty which have the similar feature related to the size of people. There are also lots of architectural feature related to Dragon on the columns of the palace. Also, the major colour used in this poster are red which represent happiness, joyful, good fortune, as usually used in the wedding. It applied some special technique in the poster, for example, “leaving it blank留白”. Chinese painting do not emphasize the reality The sky in this painting is blank, without any colour, which is different from the Western painting which treats “Leaving it blank” as a non-completion of the painting.

It is a pavilion with a stream beside in City University of Hong Kong. It is a realistic landscape. However, it is not really a landscape because landscape art in Chinese art focus on the mountain and the water instead of a pavilion. The pavilion is surrounded by many beautiful plants, giving readers a feeling of pleasure. The flowing of the water and the nice weather make readers feel peaceful. Although you cannot find a path in the photo, but the readers can know there should be a path for people to walk along the small stream and get a rest in the pavilion. It somehow shows a shifting perspective that the reader can travel around the stream and the pavilion. It also somehow shows a reclusion picture. Readers no longer live in busy lifestyle. They try to find a place to be free and take a rest.

It is a book cover. The painter is playing with a brush. This is a kind of Shuimo and a style of xie yi. The painter just uses straight lines, curves lines and points to construct the whole picture. It is black and white like the traditional Chinese painting. The painter just uses black colour and leave plain. The white colour is just the background colour. This is one of the significant Chinese painting characteristics. The painter uses darker colour to paint the front view. You can see the first house is very dark and bigger. The painter then uses lighter colour to paint the back view. You can see the second house and third house are lighter and smaller. The painter uses the intensity of colour and size of the objects to create a near to far perspective.

It is the front page of a red pocket. We can find many objects symbolizing different meanings in this photo. We can an old man with white hair symbolizing long life. The peach holding by the old man also symbolizes long life. You can also see the clouds which are symbolic of many blessings like good fortune. You can also see the red bats which are the homonymous, but differently written, characters for ‘vast good fortune’ (hongfu). You can also see the gourd which is one of the hidden immortals. That is Li Tieguai. The eight daoist immortals represent the hope of long and happy life on earth and quest for immortality.

It is also the front page of a red pocket. We can see the word ‘有餘’. It is represented by the golden fish because the word ‘fish’ has the same Chinese pronunciation of ‘有餘’. It can show that the Chinese are good at playing tricks with the pronunciation. Also, we can find the word ‘有餘’ is much bigger than the word ‘富貴’ and the golden fish is very large because the fish is the main idea of this photo. In Chinese tradition, we are used to draw something important much bigger. Fish symbolize abundance. The word ‘有餘’ means ‘surplus’ of ‘excess’. We can also see the lotus, which is Buddha’s throne, meaning purity.

It is the sunset on a pier. This gives me an association of farewell. Pier is a place for people to leave. Standing in front of the pier and watching the ships go far away gives a feeling of loneliness and sadness. The sunset is very beautiful and it is very short too. Just like the gatherings with friends are very short. Suddenly, they need to leave. The weather is cloudy, matching the sad atmosphere.

The photo shows a traditional Chinese calligraphy artwork of the word “please thinking” in Chinese meanings. It was created by a person with paralysis issue and insisted on creating his calligraphy style. The calligraphy was written with traditional Chinese brushes and adopted the style of Semi-cursive Scrip in Chinese calligraphy style. The strokes used are relatively longer with relatively hard in reading the total composition of strokes in Chinese characters. Moreover, the character are showing the meaning of silence and thinking, which is an element of spiritual mindset for Chinese in slowing down thinking process and embrace the silence of different stages in human activities. It reminds me of my working experience throughout the years with passion involved. Sometimes we have to slow down and think the consequences that we would create in the future as we are growing, which is an element of Chinese traditional culture that we have learnt.

The picture is showing the landscape of Ap Lei Chau in hong Kong, with the combination of island and ocean in the special nature of typhoon shelter and shipyard. As a modern society, the development of modern buildings are unavoidable. However, the nature of fisherman working for harvesting fish and related products are preserved in the present of typhoon shelter in Ap Lei Chau. The photo shows in combination of traditional Chinese culture and the influence of western architecture in Hong Kong. Moreover, the picture structure reminds me of the landscape painting in Chinese art method, where most of the picture area are filled with sky. It creates the harmony and larger perspective in the viewing angle.

This photo was taken in Wuhan, where it is the garden and pond in a Chinese styled garden. In traditional Chinese art culture willow was always used as one of the drawing objects along with the river, showing the sense of relaxation and following the lead by the wind. This photo reminds me of the most painters in the past who draws the image of rivers and willows, and the style of relaxing from the busyness of a vibrant city.

The photo is a statue of Qu Yuan. It is a traditional Chinese story of being criticized by the society and social values which lead to possible cause of death from the pressure. It is a well-known story among every Chinese children. Moreover, the material of the Chinese image statue was marble, which is a western culture materials mainly in architectural objects. This statue has represented the fusion of western and Chinese culture in image and art displaying.

The final picture is the yellow crane pavilion in Wuhan. This is a special Chinese architectural objects which has over 6 storeys of structure. Despite its special characteristics of high structure, it uses the traditional construction method of tenons, which could avoid joints and pins of constructing the buildings. In western culture, a look-out tower like the yellow crane pavilion are commonly founded. However, this building uses western nature of building styles with the method of Chinese traditional construction method in the past dynasty. It reminds me of the special ability of Chinese people in the past.

This photo was taken in Twelve Apostles in Australia. The focus of this photo is the black hole in the middle. The viewpoint was horizontal. We can see that light came from the back position of photographer. But it was taken almost in the evening, the light wasn't that bright and shining. Therefore, the light gives a gloomy effect, resulting in unspeakable terror spread from the hole. The photo is quite symmetric. When we divide it in 9 segments, by the rule of thirds, the focus is positioned from one intersection point to another.

This photo was taken also in Twelve Apostles. Viewpoint is from top to bottom. This photo shows the depth because the grass at the left corner in the foreground. It shows a wide view from sand to the sea. The light came from the back of photographer.

This photo was taken at a bottom angle in Bondi Beach in Sydney. As we can see from the shadow of the bird, the light was projected from left to right. The only focus here is the bird with a flying motion. Background is a pure sand in order to put focus on the flying motion of the bird. Also, reflection of the bird is shown, which makes the photo look like symmetric. The light is shining and sharp to echo with lively energy by the flying bird.

This photo was taken in Twelve Apostles. The focus is the rocks on the right. Viewpoint is from top to bottom. From top view, it gives the wave more tension, which makes it look like it's about to brutally swallow the rocks with endless waves and impact until the rocks shatter in pieces.

This photo was taken in Melbourne. The focus is the train on the left. The trees and woods were the balancing elements although they took a large amount of portion of the photo. The train was horizontal with the photographer and in the middle left corner. It shows a wide angle view. The curve of train gives an illusion of wide view. Also we can see the road down below, which gives the depth. To conclude, this photo gathers a lot of things including train, trees, roads, but shows the main focus clearly.

This photo shows a plain field during the dawn. It is a level perspective landscape photograph. The soft light of the picture also created a peaceful and calm mood for the picture. More than half of the photograph is used to show the sky. It created a blank space like a Chinese painting for the imagination of the viewers to think about what else is up there in the sky. Moreover, it created a sense of contrast to show how small the birds and trees are and how big the sky is to show the magnificence of nature.

This is photo of the Great Wall. The photo is took in a higher position and created a deep perspective. It use the bird’s eye view to show the Great Wall over a far and continuous view. It can let the viewer to see how long and curly the Great Wall is over the mountains with different heights. The thick mist between the mountains can also add a sense of mysterious and acts as a motif to the green colour of the mountains.

This is a photo of the portrait of an old woman. The woman on the left appears bigger on the photo to create a sense of contrast that she is the subject of the photo. The lighting in the photo also made a contrast of the inside of the house and outside the street where the house appear to be darker. The old woman is alone in the house eating while an old man is walking casually on the street. This display the lifestyle of some elders which is a bit sad.

This photo shows two birds are standing on the branch of a tree. There is a male bird and female bird shows the natural cosmos. A pair of birds can also balance the shape and rhythm of the photo. The birds are looking at each others like they are a couple. A pair of things is also a good symbol in Chinese Culture. The branches and leaves in the background can make the subject blends into the nature.

This photo is an illusion photography showing that a man appears to be stepping on the Stonehenge.It looks very refreshing because the composition of the picture is very different from a normal picture. The foot is much closer to the camera than the Stonehenge so the foot appears to be much than the Stonehenge but in the reality it is not. This kind of set up can make people to question the reality or create a comical effect to make people feel happy because it is very different from the reality.

This painting is very famous in China region, they are Chinese door god. Many Chinese people stick this painting on their door. They believe 2 human figures can let the ghost be scared and keep evil spirits from entering. This painting involves many Chinese painting elements, the human figure is abstractionism and no desire for similar in appearance, the painting also leave plain for the face color of the right human figure, composition is very simple, do not have any arrangement of light and dark.

This picture shows the decoration of Chinese people ancestor temple. Chinese people trust that their ancestor will protect them after they dead. Therefore, they will build a temple for their ancestor. This decoration is very special and full of Chinese elements. The top is talking about the Chinese fairy tale. The bottom is the government department in ancient periods. The special decoration of ancestor temple reflects the worshipping ancestors.

The building is the door of the temple. Chinese people believe there are many gods, they will build a temple for worshipping. This door is built for a sign to enter the Jiulongfeng temples. The architecture of the door is very special. There are some dragons on the top of the door. Dragon is one of the siling in Chinese culture. Chinese people believes that siling can bring great fortune and auspices to them. Therefore, people can bring good things after they finish the worshipping of gods.

It is a beautiful cake picture. The cake decoration looks the Chinese blue-and-white pottery. Chinese Blue-and-white pottery is very famous since China can produce this beautiful pottery in many years. Moreover, the painting on the cake is a landscape painting. The building is full of Chinese architecture elements.

It is a red banner. Chinese people will stick the red banner in their home during Chinese New Year. The red banner is some lucky messages for a new year. In this red banner, the words are regular script brushwork. The figures around the lucky message also have many special Chinese lucky meanings. For example, the flower refers to 花開富貴, the dragon and phoenix refers to 龍鳳呈祥, two fishes refer to 如魚得水. Those lucky messages are the wishing of Chinese people in a new year. They believe those red banners can bring fortune to them in a new year.

It was taken at the countryside in Yuen Long. There is a buffalo standing in the grass. This photo is a study of the nature. The buffalo stands at the bright place while the grass and tress nearby are in shadow. This emphasizes the buffalo is the theme of this painting. Moreover, the facial expression of the buffalo looks sad and lonely which looks like a human.

It was taken in Fanling. There are Koi(錦鯉) swimming in a pool. They have many different kinds of colours and patterns. In some of the Chinese art, we would like to use a specific colour or pattern to represent something. For example, gold in colour will represent wealth and riches. In addition, Koi is a kind of fish. Fish symbolizes abundance in Chinese.

It was taken in Fanling. The whole picture forms a Chinese painting with the "three perfections". There is a large paragraph of writing with single type of calligraphy. The plants and the eaves at the surrounding forms the painting. By combination the above elements, a modern Chinese painting is created.

It was taken at the countryside in Yuen Long. By observing the growing posture of the bamboos, we can associate to the eight principle strokes of Chinese character which are dot(點), horizontal(橫), erect(竪), hook(鉤), raise(提), bend(彎), slant(撇) and pressing forcefully(捺). In Chinese painting, bamboo is usually used to practice drawing.

It was taken at my home. This bowl is a Chinese porcelain(pottery). There is a decoration drawing on it which is a rooster. In Chinese, "rooster" is pronounced gongji (公雞) and "to crow" is ming (鳴). By a combination of words, gongming("公鳴"→功名) is formed. "Gongming(功名)" means successful official with honor. This is a kind of implication in Chinese decorative art.

This photo was taken in Tai O fishing village. This is a landscape image. There are a river flow between the houses, finally the river flow into the sea. A lot of houses in this image creates a repression feeling as the houses are immobile and crowded together. However, the river is mobile, it make the photo vitality. This landscape let me remember the lecture Meanings and Functions in Chinese Landscape Painting. The boat, mount and the river in Chinese landscape painting always represent the farewell function. A friend board the boat and leaves from hometown.

This photo was taken in Shanghai. This is an eight immortals jade statue. Below the eight immortals jade immortals jade status is a wood statue likes the wave which represent the sea. This status exactly the term eight immortals pass across the sea (八仙過海), each one showing his special prowess (各顯神通). Eight immortals always express the hope and happiness in Chinese tradition.

This photo was taken in western temple. This is a Buddhist art architecture. The western temple locates in Tsuen Wan and it is near Yuan Yuan Institute. I choose this photo because there are many Chinese architecture pattern for example the propitious clouds, red column and tile roof. The house top of the stairs is an entry of western Inside the house are two door gods at two sides and there is a bronze statue of Buddha. When we pass through this house, we can enter the western. This also is a Chinese architecture feature called “jin(進)”.

This is a porcelain spoon which was found in my home. I focus on its decoration. The pattern in this spoon are three-dimensional. The base colour of this spoon is red, the pattern around this spoon are the clouds or Ruyi. There is a chinese word at the center which is 壽 means age. A lotus locates upper the 壽, it is one of the eight auspicious symbols of buddhism. These decoration emblemize good fortune. This spoon recalled my memory about the lecutre of the decoration and meaning in chinese porcelain.

This is a decoration of calender. The red colour is a chinese word “福” which is a running script. Behind the red colour word, there are many different form but also are the word “福” and they are writen in seal script. Most of the words form of “福” that I have never seen before. Some of them maybe the Jiagu Wen(甲骨文) or Jinwen(金文). These let me think about the evolution of chinese word and chinese calligraphy.

This picture is taken in the dragon’s back in Tai O. It’s a landscape photo which make me think of the realistic landscape in Song Dynasty. A contemporary artist, Richard Rosenblum one said that the flip between nature and art is the heart of its impact: it is fundamental to this art form. I think this is a nice place for landscape painting as we were standing on the top of the hill, so that we could have a whole view of the sea down there. The blue sea and sky are almost permeated together, creating a faultless scene.

On the cover of monthly calendar, there is always a Chinese character pronouncing ‘fu’ which refers to fortunate. Sometimes the character is turning upside down to symbolize the coming of fortune. There are all in total 99 front-designs of ‘fu’ on the above calendar which refers to different calligraphy. Calligraphy (Shufa) is the art of brush-written Chinese characters, having expressive lines and dots. Even one simple character, can be turned into so many forms of design. They are not only words, but more likely drawing showing prettiness.

On traditional Chinese red packets, there must be colourful fortunate decors. Red packets are presented not only in Lunar New Year, but also in any jubilation and traditional festival such as wedding, birthday and graduation. The above red packet is used for wedding. As we can see, there are a dragon and a phoenix in the middle. Dragon and phoenix represents couples in traditional culture, and they could bring prosperity to people, indicated by words enclosed by them. Moreover, there is symbol composed by two words meaning happiness. During jubilation, Chinese people love to use this symbol as it refers to double happiness and even number is always lucky for Chinese. These graphics are frequently appeared in red packets.

These three paintings is a serie in the Graduation Exhibition of Advanced Diploma Programme in Fine Arts of the School of Continuing and Professional Studies of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. They’re using acrylic in canvas with abundant pigment. According to the colour use and line, this serie tends western style because western paintings often use bright colour and sharp line to emphasize the the figures in the paintings. This is just in opposite of that of Chinese paintings which barely use mono-colour and emphasize usage of lines instead. Also, these three paintings adopt elements like animals and human, which are the basic subject matters in traditional Chinese and western art works.

This tattoo is from one of my friend recently. The whole design is quite chinoiserie with the use of bright-red flower and green leaves. It is kind of the technique of shuimo in Chinese painting which refers to loosely termed watercolour or brush painting. This style is also referred to freehand as you can that the outline of leaves are loosely, likely spilt out. It resembles concepts of Chinese painting such as no desire for similar in appearance or form, and abstractionism and symbolism.

This is Hui Chun which people usually stick it onto the wall as a kind of decoration in Chinese New Year. In the photo, the words are 萬事勝意meaning that everything goes as you hope. Besides, there are other blessing messages in Hui Chun, for example wishing you safety wherever you go and wishing you prosperity. Traditional Hui Chun is written in calligraphy. The Hui Chun here is written in regular script which is widely used by people nowadays. The words are square-like and terse. Each stroke was placed slowly and carefully and the words are distinct from each other. In China, red color symbolizes festive and lucky, therefore Hui Chun are written on red paper in order to spread out the luck in the coming year.

I took this photo in Guangzhou when I backed to my hometown. This is the Chinese door gods in Chen Clan Ancestral Hall. In history, door gods can keep evil spirits from entering since the god stand guard outside the door. Therefore, some traditional villages and ancestral halls have a pair of door god to frighten the ghosts and spirits, especially in Chinese New Year. The gods used to protect against devils and bring back peace and luck. Door gods were even worshipped by Taoists. Since door god must exist in pairs, some famous door gods include brothers Shen Tu and Yu Lei in Han dynasty and Qin Qiong and Wei Chigong in Tang dynasty are keep worshipping by traditional Chinese until now.

It is the classical example of using Gongbi technique in Chinese painting, hanging scroll, ink and color on silk. It is painted by Shen Quan(1682-1762) in Qing dynasty. In the painting, the flowers and birds are painted by fine brushwork with detailed strokes. Shen Quan was good at meticulous brush style which the details are painted in very precisely and without expressive variation. The painting is colored and the flowers are painted carefully. Shen Quan contoured the flowers and the specific details using Ye Jing brush and Xie Zhua brush respectively. Using these brush technique, the detailed objects could be emphasized, producing vivid and lifelike natural painting.

It is a Chinese blue and white porcelain koi fish vase in the 14th century. This vase features a flared lip with a rounded body. There is Koi fish pattern with lotus flowers and leaves. The decoration is applied by the brush painting. Koi fish is a common element used in artworks and porcelains in Chinese culture as it symbolizes prosperity, longevity and richness. It is a good sign if people can see Koi fish. Therefore, many items engraved Koi fish pattern. Lotus flowers also represent purity and beauty in Buddhist means. It is usually used in poem and some artworks.

I took this picture last year when I was travelling Taiwan. It is a landscape painting which creates a feeling of escape and relaxation. From the angle the photo is taken, I was standing at a high place where I can look down and use a high angle shot to take the photo. I felt that the mountain and sea are beneath my feet. I used the far perspective in the photo. This image captured the mountains and sea which are the common themes found in landscape painting. This photo reminds me the landscape work Travelers among Mountains and Streams of Fan Kwan (960-1279) in Song dynasty which also focused on mountains and water. It is a monumental landscape which described with realistic detail the solemn grandeur of a landscape.

The Pawn(和昌大押)is one of the heritage in Hong Kong. To conserve this building, urban renewal is necessary. The word of the Pawn(和昌大押)used regular script for the characters. The calligraphic style used shows the culture and the latest script appeared in Hong Kong at that time. The shape of the shop also demonstrates the pattern of logo, which is unique and inherit the Chinese drawing pattern. The logo is usually colorful and associated with the color of red, green and yellow. This shows the Chinese calligraphy has greatly influenced the culture of the society.

Wong Tai Sin Temple is a very popular religious place among Chinese people. This temple has a saying that ‘make every wish come true upon request’, this might be the reason why it has a high popularity. The temple is a structure which built full of the Chinese traditional culture. For example, grand red pillars, a golden roof adorned with blue friezes, yellow latticework, and multi-colored carvings. Also, the two stone statue located in front of the temple is used to protect the temple in Chinese means. The temple is very beautiful and is again use red, green, yellow for the main color.

The Fuwa were the good-luck dolls which presented in the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. They are the souvenirs that I bought in Beijing. As the Fuwa magnet lose its color, it cannot see their presenting color. From Left to right, they represent blue, black, red, orange and green, which means friendly, honest, enthusiastic, lively and kind respectively. Each of the Fuwas got a name, together, the name form a sentence which is “Beijing huanying ni” (北京歡迎你). The five Fuwas promote different culture, element, personality, idea, sports and animals. In the middle of each dolls, the red paint imitated the seal script of jing (京), but instead it looks like a people who is running. Each of their design have emerged in the Chinese culture. The pattern on their head used the traditional Chinese design. I love the ideas behind the Fuwas and I believe they are a good art work that represents Chinese culture well.

This Chinese dictionary has mainly used clerical script for its shop name The Commercial Press(商務印書館). The characters follow the rules of the “silkworm head and goose tail”. But the stroke also combined the characteristic of the seal script, therefore the word is not totally in straight lines, it also used circular and balanced lines in writing the stroke. I believe it might be the script from the ancient clerical instead of the mature clerical script. The characters had shown a unique style of designing its company logo, it also combines the Chinese calligraphy culture and features into the design. The style of using ancient script to design also stick closely to the theme of book shop.

It is a Chinese paper cutting done by my relatives. This is the first paper cut she made, so it is not really professional and beautiful as those which is sold in shop. I believe she has made a brilliant art work. The paper cutting in the photo is a monkey. Although there are no lectures for paper cutting, it combined the features of the Chinese culture. The color of the paper is usually used in red since it is mainly used during Chinese New Year, marriage or even death. It brings a message that is blessings and good fortune. The pattern of the paper cut uses lots of straight lines in it, while curve lines only own a small portion. Chinese paper cut is an amazing art work, however it is hard to inherit this work, if it promoted more, I believe more people will like to access the paper cut.

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The bamboo rooftop

<Natural Life>

A mini bag with Chinese Needlework

Market in Jordan - Their everyday lives

Two Bowls in Common Room

A Family of Three

Entrance of the Tang Ancestral Hall 鄧氏宗祠

The Chinese box-shaped padlock with door knocker

<Lotus>

The souvenirs inspired by the Green Jade Cabbage.

The Dragon and Phoenix in our home

The Water and Rock in the City University of Hong Kong

Night Vigil

The red calendar link to the Chinese knotting. (Photo by myself Wong Yi Ling)

The wood carving

<Lane to Little House>

A pen holder

A section of Canton Road - Our everyday lives

A Ocarina From my Friend

The Chinese Garden

The red calendar link to the Chinese knotting. (Photo by myself Wong Yi Ling)

Green-glazed ceramics tile

<Farewell Landscape To Friend Antonioni >

A Chinese painting placed in the living room at my home

The beauty of symmetry

The Cookie I Bought

The Crosses of Bamboos

Minibus signs/ Plastic advertising boards (Photo by myself Wong Yi Ling)

The pattern of the wooden door

<Farewell Landscape To Friend Antonioni >

A pen holder

The beauty of symmetry

The Entrance of Festival Walk

The Guard

A traditional Chinese wedding tea

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Big Buddha

Jade Necklaces at the Jade Market

The Chinese Garden

The Fish

A Door Knocker

Chinese New Year

Chinese Paper Cuts in CNY

Chinese Calligraphy Artwork

A vivid lion mask

Calm and peaceful lotus pool

China Art Museum

Zhangjiajie

Chan, Long Yin

Chan, Long Yin

Indoor Chinese Garden

Logo of the Pawn Shop

The dragon symbolizes the Emperor and also China

Painted Cranes with Flower

Stone Lion

Shopfront Art in Chinese style

Paper Cutting

Mountain, Fog, and River

Carved Screen

A logo with Chinese art elements

A red pocket with Chinese art elements

Miniature Screen, home decoration

Folding Fan with Monumental Landscape painting

Figure Painting on a flower pot

Buddhist Art

Lion dance during Chinese New Year (Taken at HK International Aiprot)

Chinese porcelain with painting (Taken at a restaurant in Mei Foo)

Chinese Calendar

Rice Container

Chinese Opera

Lee Tung Ave decorations

Chinese painting of tangerine

Chinese tea product

Ancient Chinese Garden Decoration in Festival Walk

Moon Gate at CityU

Gate God from Sichuan ‘KuanZhaiXiangZi’

A Miniature Tangerine

Poster of lego lion dancing

Chinese garden in Festival Walk

Chinese Seal Engraving

Traditional Chinese architecture: Pavilion in garden

A light with Chinese style

Chinese-styled Door 2

Chinese-styled Vase

Poster of the Exhibition in School

Dish and Bowl

Beautiful Daffodil in the Chinese New Year

The Roof in Ngong Ping

Plate in a dim sum restaurant

Part of an international school

A Chinese garden

A "westernized" wedding gown

Plaster moulding

Chinese style Tramway station

Chinese style plaque in Cha Chaan Teng

Very Chinese coca cola bottle

The pushou